Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Origami-inspired active graphene-based paper for programmable instant self-folding walking devices

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Science Advances  06 Nov 2015:
Vol. 1, no. 10, e1500533
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500533
  • Fig. 1 Fabrication and characterization of the MGM paper.

    (A) Schematic illustration of the synthesis of GO-PDA. The AFM image and height profile of GO (left) and GO-PDA (right) spin-coated on a silicon wafer (scale bar, 1 μm). (B) (I) Schematic illustration of the mask-assisted filtration process (scale bar, 2 cm). (II) Cross-sectional SEM images of GO-PDA/rGO and rGO regions after reduction by HI (scale bar, 1 μm). (III) CA measurement of the GO-PDA/rGO surface (43.1°) and rGO surface (93.4°) of dual-gradient MGM.

  • Fig. 2 GO-PDA/rGO photoactuators and photothermal actuation mechanism.

    (A) Schematic representations of the structures and mechanisms of the graphene paper. If there is no NIR light irradiation, the GO-PDA/rGO region flattens. A flat, freestanding GO-PDA/rGO region starts to bend immediately upon exposure to NIR light irradiation. This bending/unbending mechanism is completely reversible over many cycles. (B) Series of optical images showing the light actuation process of the MGM (100 mW cm−2) (scale bar, 3 mm). Bending angle as a function of time as light is turned on (period, 8 s) and off (period, 12 s). (C) Dependence of bending angle on illumination intensity (scale bar, 5 mm).

  • Fig. 3 A fast self-folding box driven by light.

    (A) Time profiles of self-folding movements of a cross-shaped piece of paper with and without NIR light irradiation. The sample was placed on the platform and illuminated with NIR light (100 mW cm−2) normal to its surface (light is incident from above). (B) IR images of the self-folding box with and without light illumination (100 mW cm−2, NIR light).

  • Fig. 4 The walking and turning mechanism of the wormlike walking device.

    (A) Scheme outlining fabrication of the walking device. (B) Maximum output stress (black spots), bending angle (blue spots), and theoretical bending angle (dotted red line) as a function of GO-PDA width. (C) Illustrations of the walking movements of the device, and the mechanical model used to describe the walking behavior (L′, L″, and L‴ are the width of three different GO-PDA lines; F′, F″, and F‴ are the stress generated by three different GO-PDA lines; M′, M″, and M‴ denote the bending moment about the central axis. β1 and β2 are the angles between MGM and the horizontal plane). (D) Model used to describe turning behavior controlled by light.

  • Fig. 5 The demonstration of the hand and wormlike auto device completing various bending and stretching actions.

    (A) Optical images showing artificial/robotic hand holding an object driven by light irradiation. (B) Optical images showing the “microrobot” crawling progressing in the pipeline driven by light irradiation.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/1/10/e1500533/DC1

    Fig. S1. Schematic illustration of the MGM having a dual-gradient structure with vertical and lateral gradients.

    Fig. S2. The XPS survey spectra of GO-PDA/HI and rGO.

    Fig. S3. Powder XRD patterns of GO, GO-PDA, GO-PDA/HI, rGO, and graphite.

    Fig. S4. Raman spectra of GO, GO-PDA, GO-PDA/HI, and rGO.

    Fig. S5. Optical images show the adhesive tape–peeling method (top).

    Fig. S6. The gravimetric tensile strength of GO-PDA/rGO and rGO regions.

    Fig. S7. The thickness profiles of the GO-PDA line with light on and off.

    Fig. S8. The digital photograph of the moisture control device and the recovery performance tested at different relative humidity environments.

    Fig. S9. Schematic illustration of θ, γ, L, F, and ρ (L is the width of the GO-PDA line; F is the stress generated by the GO-PDA line; ρ is the radius of curvature; θ is the bending angle of MGM; γ is the supplementary angles of θ).

    Fig. S10. Schematic illustration of the preparation of a self-folding box.

    Fig. S11. The stress generated by the MGMs (middle and right) were measured on the universal testing machine (Instron Model 5969) with on/off NIR light irradiations (left).

    Fig. S12. Cross-sectional field emission SEM images indicating GO-PDA/rGO regions for different GO-PDA lines: (A) 1 mm, (B) 3 mm, and (C) 5 mm.

    Fig. S13. Temperature-change curves and the energy conversion efficiency of MGM.

    Fig. S14. Cycle output test of MGM under on/off irradiations.

    Fig. S15. Optical image of the walking behavior of the walking device driven by NIR light.

    Fig. S16. The turning behavior of the walking device.

    Fig. S17. Turning angle of the walking devices as a function of time as light is turned on and off for different illumination areas.

    Fig. S18. Optical images show the walking device progressing over a virtual map driven by light irradiation (scale bar, 3 cm).

    Fig. S19. The schematic illustration and optical image showing the measurement of the bending angle using a laser displacement sensor.

    Table S1. Maximum output stress, bending angle, and theoretical bending angle as a function of GO-PDA width (average value of data).

    Note S1. Calculations of the maximum energy conversion efficiency of our actuator.

    Methods

    Movie S1. The photoactuation behavior of the self-folding box.

    Movie S2. The walking behavior of the wormlike walking device driven by an NIR light on and off (100 mW cm−2).

    Movie S3. The worming behavior of the wormlike walking device driven by an NIR light on and off (100 mW cm−2).

    Movie S4. The turning behavior of the wormlike walking device driven by an IR laser.

    Movie S5. The grasping behavior of the “artificial/robotic hand” driven by light irradiation.

    Movie S6. The crawling behavior of the “microrobot” inside a minipipe driven by an NIR light on and off (100 mW cm−2).

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Schematic illustration of the MGM having a dual-gradient structure with vertical and lateral gradients.
    • Fig. S2. The XPS survey spectra of GO-PDA/HI and rGO.
    • Fig. S3. Powder XRD patterns of GO, GO-PDA, GO-PDA/HI, rGO, and graphite.
    • Fig. S4. Raman spectra of GO, GO-PDA, GO-PDA/HI, and rGO.
    • Fig. S5. Optical images show the adhesive tape–peeling method (top).
    • Fig. S6. The gravimetric tensile strength of GO-PDA/rGO and rGO regions.
    • Fig. S7. The thickness profiles of the GO-PDA line with light on and off.
    • Fig. S8. The digital photograph of the moisture control device and the recovery performance tested at different relative humidity environments.
    • Fig. S9. Schematic illustration of θ, γ, L, F, and ρ (L is the width of the GO-PDA line; F is the stress generated by the GO-PDA line; ρ is the radius of curvature; θ is the bending angle of MGM; γ is the supplementary angles of θ).
    • Fig. S10. Schematic illustration of the preparation of a self-folding box.
    • Fig. S11. The stress generated by the MGMs (middle and right) were measured on the universal testing machine (Instron Model 5969) with on/off NIR light irradiations (left).
    • Fig. S12. CrossCross -sectional field emission SEM images indicating GO-PDA/rGO regions for different GO-PDA lines: (A) 1 mm, (B) 3 mm, and (C) 5 mm.
    • Fig. S13. Temperature-change curves and the energy conversion efficiency of MGM.
    • Fig. S14. Cycle output test of MGM under on/off irradiations.
    • Fig. S15. Optical image of the walking behavior of the walking device driven by NIR light.
    • Fig. S16. The turning behavior of the walking device.
    • Fig. S17. Turning angle of the walking devices as a function of time as light is turned on and off for different illumination areas.
    • Fig. S18. Optical images show the walking device progressing over a virtual map driven by light irradiation (scale bar, 3 cm).
    • Fig. S19. The schematic illustration and optical image showing the measurement of the bending angle using a laser displacement sensor.
    • Table S1. Maximum output stress, bending angle, and theoretical bending angle as a function of GO-PDA width (average value of data).
    • Note S1. Calculations of the maximum energy conversion efficiency of our actuator.
    • Methods
    • Legends for movies S1 to S6

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). The photoactuation behavior of the self-folding box.
    • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). The walking behavior of the wormlike walking device driven by an NIR light on and off (100 mW cm−2).
    • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). The worming behavior of the wormlike walking device driven by an NIR light on and off (100 mW cm−2).
    • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). The turning behavior of the wormlike walking device driven by an IR laser.
    • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). The grasping behavior of the “artificial/robotic hand” driven by light irradiation.
    • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). The crawling behavior of the “microrobot” inside a minipipe driven by an NIR light on and off (100 mW cm−2).

    Files in this Data Supplement: