Research ArticleQUANTUM PHYSICS

Quantum entanglement at ambient conditions in a macroscopic solid-state spin ensemble

Science Advances  20 Nov 2015:
Vol. 1, no. 10, e1501015
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501015

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Abstract

Entanglement is a key resource for quantum computers, quantum-communication networks, and high-precision sensors. Macroscopic spin ensembles have been historically important in the development of quantum algorithms for these prospective technologies and remain strong candidates for implementing them today. This strength derives from their long-lived quantum coherence, strong signal, and ability to couple collectively to external degrees of freedom. Nonetheless, preparing ensembles of genuinely entangled spin states has required high magnetic fields and cryogenic temperatures or photochemical reactions. We demonstrate that entanglement can be realized in solid-state spin ensembles at ambient conditions. We use hybrid registers comprising of electron-nuclear spin pairs that are localized at color-center defects in a commercial SiC wafer. We optically initialize 103 identical registers in a 40-μm3 volume (with Embedded Image fidelity) and deterministically prepare them into the maximally entangled Bell states (with 0.88 ± 0.07 fidelity). To verify entanglement, we develop a register-specific quantum-state tomography protocol. The entanglement of a macroscopic solid-state spin ensemble at ambient conditions represents an important step toward practical quantum technology.

Keywords
  • quantum entanglement
  • room-temperature quantum phenomena
  • quantum sensing
  • quantum information processing
  • macroscopic quantum phenomena
  • optically detected magnetic resonance
  • spintronics
  • nuclear spintronics
  • hybrid quantum systems

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

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