Research ArticleENTOMOLOGY

A dietary phytochemical alters caste-associated gene expression in honey bees

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Science Advances  28 Aug 2015:
Vol. 1, no. 7, e1500795
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500795
  • Fig. 1 edgeR’ multidimensional scaling plot (MDS) showing relationships among all pairs of samples (two treatments) and replicates (3 replicates per treatment).

    Treatments comprise larval honey bees consuming artificial diet and larval honey bees consuming artificial diet with p-coumaric acid. CK denotes control treatment; CA denotes 0.5 mM p-coumaric acid treatment. Control and treatment samples group separately when plotted.

  • Fig. 2 edgeR’ smearplot showing differences in gene expression in larval honey bees consuming artificial diet with and without p-coumaric acid; red dot indicates gene that is differentially expressed (FC = fold change in expression).
  • Fig. 3 Hippo signaling pathway.

    Up-regulated genes appear in red, and down-regulated genes appear in green. For specific fold change and P values, see table S3.

  • Fig. 4 Effect of p-coumaric acid ingestion during larval growth on ovary development in A. mellifera.

    (A) Ovary development scale of 1 to 5 (undeveloped to fully developed) modified from Pernal and Currie (25). (B) Distribution of ovaries according to level of ovary development in newly eclosed adult bees reared in vitro on diets with and without 0.5 mM p-coumaric acid (two-tailed Fisher’s exact test, P < 0.0001; n = 130).

  • Table 1 DAVID functional annotation clustering analysis on 2077 of the 3367 DEGs in honey bee larvae consuming p-coumaric acid.
    Annotation clusterTermCountPBenjamini
    Cluster 1 (enrichment score: 11.08)Imaginal disc development1318.90 × 10−162.40 × 10−12
    Post-embryonic organ development1007.10 × 10−149.40 × 10−11
    Imaginal disc morphogenesis961.80 × 10−131.60 × 10−10
    Post-embryonic organ morphogenesis961.80 × 10−131.60 × 10−10
    Post-embryonic morphogenesis1092.70 × 10−121.80 × 10−9
    Metamorphosis1112.80 × 10−121.50 × 10−9
    Wing disc development924.90 × 10−122.20 × 10−9
    Instar larval or pupal morphogenesis1074.90 × 10−121.90 × 10−9
    Post-embryonic development1265.30 × 10−121.80 × 10−9
    Instar larval or pupal development1204.10 × 10−111.10 × 10−8
    Imaginal disc–derived appendage morphogenesis791.10 × 10−102.80 × 10−8
    Wing disc morphogenesis742.00 × 10−104.30 × 10−8
    Post-embryonic appendage morphogenesis762.20 × 10−104.50 × 10−8
    Appendage morphogenesis792.20 × 10−104.20 × 10−8
    Imaginal disc–derived appendage development792.80 × 10−104.90 × 10−8
    Imaginal disc–derived wing development733.30 × 10−105.50 × 10−8
    Appendage development795.40 × 10−108.40 × 10−8
    Cluster 2 (enrichment score: 9.73)Transcription1317.10 × 10−122.10 × 10−9
    Regulation of transcription1921.10 × 10−91.60 × 10−7
    Regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent1399.40 × 10−65.80 × 10−4
    Regulation of RNA metabolic process1476.60 × 10−53.10 × 10−3
    Cluster 3 (enrichment score: 6.98)ncRNA metabolic process491.30 × 10−81.80 × 10−6
    ncRNA process382.30 × 10−83.00 × 10−6
    tRNA metabolic process365.10 × 10−74.70 × 10−5
    tRNA process237.60 × 10−76.30 × 10−5
  • Table 2 Genes differentially regulated by at least 1.4-fold by p-coumaric acid in honey bee larvae.
    GroupGene IDGene nameFold changeAdjusted P
    Xenobiotic metabolism genesGB40288CYP6AS11.881.21 × 10−6
    GB49886CYP6AS22.551.27 × 10−12
    GB49887CYP6AS34.837.67 × 10−20
    GB49885CYP6AS45.338.44 × 10−23
    GB49890CYP6AS547.111.98 × 10−40
    GB49888CYP6AS1215.324.69 × 10−25
    GB43713CYP9Q11.851.10 × 10−7
    GB43727CYP9Q21.842.67 × 10−8
    GB43728CYP9Q32.255.52 × 10−8
    GB43714CYP9P12.571.70 × 10−5
    GB43709CYP9P21.465.33 × 10−4
    GB43716CYP9R11.796.20 × 10−6
    GB43715CYP9S13.121.04 × 10−13
    GB51356CYP4G111.684.09 × 10−7
    GB45654γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase 1–like1.290.020213
    Immunity genesGB46236Apidaecins type 73–like25.415.92 × 10−17
    GB51306Apid73 apidaecin10.902.79 × 10−15
    GB40163LYZ11.751.31 × 10−5
    GB42685β-1,3-Glucan recognition protein 11.680.005207
    GB47805Peptidoglycan recognition protein S21.875.78 × 10−6
    GB45648Immune deficiency1.744.76 × 10−7
    Caste differentiation genesGB48059Ecdysone receptor2.312.69 × 10−13
    GB47037Hormone receptor–like in 42.009.95 × 10−5
    GB49105Ecdysteroid-regulated gene E742.283.59 × 10−15
    GB42692Ultraspiracle2.113.60 × 10−9
    GB40074Probable nuclear hormone receptor HR38–like2.000.00236
    GB45414Hormone receptor–like in 391.290.01531
    GB54477EGFR1.641.28 × 10−6
    GB46903S6K1.517.88 × 10−5
    GB55485Dnmt31.784.20 × 10−5
    GB55425InR22.077.65 × 10−9
    GB53353InR2.060.000109
    GB49911IRS2.054.84 × 10−11
    GB43560ILP2−1.917.05 × 10−6
    GB48301Forkhead box protein O2.382.69 × 10−17
    GB44043Juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase2.731.42 × 10−13
    GB55205Major royal jelly protein 1−6.617.32 × 10−8
    GB55207Major royal jelly protein 6−3.800.003876
    GB55206Major royal jelly protein 4−3.760.007108
    GB55208Major royal jelly protein 5−2.950.020384
    GB55204Major royal jelly protein 3−2.560.00404
    GB55213Major royal jelly protein 7−1.890.005034
    GB55212Major royal jelly protein 2−1.950.002019
    GB55211Major royal jelly protein 2–like (pseudo)−2.562.36 × 10−5

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/1/7/e1500795/DC1

    Table S1. Summary of read alignments using Bowtie 2.

    Table S2. DEGs in the 0.5 mM p-coumaric acid treatment relative to control treatment.

    Table S3. DEG significantly enriched clusters with enrichment scores higher than 5.

    Table S4. Genes in the Hippo signaling pathway differentially expressed in larvae consuming diet containing p-coumaric acid.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Table S1. Summary of read alignments using Bowtie 2.
    • Legends for tables S2 and S3
    • Table S4. Genes in the Hippo signaling pathway differentially expressed in larvae consuming diet containing p-coumaric acid.

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Table S2 (Microsoft Excel format). DEGs in the 0.5 mM p-coumaric acid treatment relative to control treatment.
    • Table S3 (Microsoft Excel format). DEG significantly enriched clusters with enrichment scores higher than 5.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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