Research ArticleGEODYNAMICS

Dislocation-accommodated grain boundary sliding as the major deformation mechanism of olivine in the Earth’s upper mantle

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Science Advances  02 Oct 2015:
Vol. 1, no. 9, e1500360
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1500360
  • Fig. 1 Microstructures of deformed samples.

    (A and B) A forescattered electron (FSE) image (A) and an orientation map (B) of olivine in a deformed sample (TO-24). (A) and (B) were obtained at the same place in the sample. Large arrows in (A) represent the direction of the uniaxial compression. Uncolored points in (B) represent misindexed points. Red and black lines in (B) represent low-angle grain boundaries having 2 to 10° misorientation angles and grain boundaries having the misorientation angles greater than 10°, respectively. Wild spikes were removed and orientation data were extrapolated in (B). The orientation maps are colored by the relationship between the direction of uniaxial compression and olivine axes (blue: compression direction // [100]; green // [010]; red // [001]). (C to E) Backscattered electron (BSE) images showing heterogeneous distribution of dislocations in a deformed sample (TO-24). The internal-oxidation dislocation-decoration technique was adopted for the TO-24 sample. Bright lines show (sub-) grain boundaries (GB) or dislocations (Dis). Grains having many free dislocations and a dislocation-poor porphyroclast are observed in (D) and (E), respectively.

  • Fig. 2 Stress-strain records for dry olivine aggregates.

    The stress values were obtained from the five diffraction peaks of olivine (cross: 021; circle: 101; diamond: 130; square: 131; triangle: 112). The hatched areas indicate that the steady state was achieved in each deformation step. The change of pressure during the sample deformation is also shown.

  • Fig. 3 Evaluation of flow law parameters for olivine aggregates.

    (A) Strain rate dependencies of steady-state creep strength (hereafter, strength) of olivine aggregates (dry: TO-23; wet: TO-14). The stress exponent n was obtained from this data set without any data normalization. (B) Strength of dry olivine aggregates plotted against inverse temperatures (TO-24 and M1375). Data was normalized to a strain rate of 10−5 s−1 using the n, and then the apparent activation enthalpy (E* + PV*) was obtained. After the determination of the activation volume V* in (E), the activation energy E* was obtained. (C) Grain size (G) dependence of the strength of dry olivine aggregates at 5.2 to 6.2 GPa and 1373 K (data from TO-23-step2, M1598-step1, and M1684). Data are normalized to the conditions of a uniform pressure (5.5 GPa), strain rate (10−5 s−1), and water content (50 ppm H/Si) using the n, V*, and water fugacity exponent r = 1.25 (see text). The data are best fit by the flow law with the grain size exponent p = 1.1 ± 0.3 (gray solid line). The best-fit lines assuming reported values of p are also shown (p = 0.7: short-dashed; 1.0: long-dashed). (D) Water fugacity sensitivity of the strength of olivine at 3.0 to 3.6 GPa (circles: data from TO-14-step1, TO-28-step1, and M1301-step1) and at 5.2 to 5.6 GPa (squares: data from TO-23-step2, M1598-step1, and M1601-step1) in the case of p = 1. The data are normalized to a strain rate of 10−5 s−1 and a temperature of 1373 K. The best-fit lines assuming theoretical values of r are also shown (r = 0.75: dot-dashed; 1.0: long-dashed; 1.25: short-dashed). Both of the data sets are best fit by the flow law with r = 1.25. (E) Pressure dependency of the strength of dry olivine aggregates in the case of r = 1.25. The strength is corrected for water fugacity effects (that is, Embedded Image). Data are normalized to the conditions of 1373 K and a strain rate of 10−5 s−1. The grain size effect on strength is not corrected because the determined value of p has a significant uncertainty in this study. The strength was obtained from the five diffraction peaks of olivine (cross: 021; circle: 101; diamond: 130; square: 131; triangle: 112). The dashed lines represent the best fits defined as the flow law. The averaged best-fit values of flow law parameters (shown by subscript “ave”) are also shown.

  • Fig. 4 Pressure dependency of strength of olivine aggregates.

    All data are normalized to an axial strain rate of 10−5 s−1, a temperature of 1373 K, and a grain size of 3.2 μm (that is, the average value of the mean grain size of dry olivine in this study). Large solid circles and solid diamonds represent the strength of dry olivine aggregates (<20 to 130 ppm H/Si) and wet olivine aggregates (500 to 3700 ppm H/Si: water content is shown near the symbols), respectively. Other symbols represent the data from previous studies. Crosses: dry olivine aggregates controlled by dislocation creep [K09 (12), MK00 (11)]; open large circle: dry olivine aggregates controlled by DisGBS (7); open triangles: wet olivine aggregates controlled by dislocation creep [KJ03 (25), MK00 (11)]. The dominant creep mechanism is unknown in the case of other symbols (the grain size effect on stress is not corrected). Open squares: dry olivine aggregates presumed to be controlled by DisGBS (D09) (13); star: a dry olivine aggregate (K09) (12); open small circles: dry olivine aggregates (O11) (26); open diamond: an olivine aggregate having 402 ppm H/Si of water (O12) (19). Red lines represent the strength of olivine aggregate controlled by DisGBS shown in Eq. (2) (thick lines with a hatched area: 20 to 130 ppm H/Si; thin lines: 500 to 3500 ppm H/Si of water in olivine). The green dotted line represents the strength of dry olivine aggregates controlled by dislocation creep [K09 (12) and HK03 (10)]. Blue dashed lines represent the strength of wet olivine aggregates controlled by wet dislocation creep [KJ03 (25)] (1000 ppm H/Si and water-saturated cases are considered).

  • Fig. 5 Deformation mechanism maps for olivine on the axes of differential stress versus grain size.

    (A to F) Calculation was made for the case of olivine having water contents of (A to C) 50 ppm H/Si (that is, dry) and (D to F) 1000 to 3000 ppm H/Si (that is, wet). Pressures of 3 to 11 GPa and temperatures of 1673 to 1773 K are assumed for the calculations (that is, corresponding to typical asthenospheric upper mantle conditions). The lines represent the boundaries between two deformation mechanisms. The boundaries were calculated from the flow laws of olivine for dislocation creep, diffusion creep, the Peierls mechanism, and DisGBS (see table S3 for references). Red solid lines, orange dotted lines, and blue solid lines represent the boundaries for the case of 50, 1000, and 3000 ppm H/Si, respectively. The green hatched area represents typical conditions of the asthenospheric upper mantle. The range of grain size is from the data set of olivine in peridotite xenoliths beneath the continental extension zones and cratons (50). The range of stress is based on the viscosity-depth profiles in the upper mantle estimated by Kohlstedt and Hansen (28) and this study (see text for details). The gray dashed lines represent the contours of strain rates.

  • Fig. 6 Depth dependency of the viscosity of olivine.

    The dominant deformation mechanism is assumed to be DisGBS (red solid curves with red hatched areas; thick: 50 ppm H/Si; thin: 1000 ppm H/Si) or wet dislocation creep (blue dashed curves; thin: 1000 ppm H/Si; thick: water-saturated). Viscosity of olivine controlled by dry dislocation creep is also shown for reference (green dotted curves). (A and B) A constant stress and a constant viscous dissipation rate are assumed for each viscosity profile, respectively (used values are summarized in the box). Geotherms below the 50 million-year-old oceans and mantle adiabat (51, 52) are used for the calculation. The gray and yellow hatched areas represent the ranges of upper mantle viscosity estimated from geophysical observations on post-glacial rebound (2931) and the geoid (CM86) (34), respectively.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/1/9/e1500360/DC1

    Details on microstructural observations

    Fig. S1. Microstructures of the samples.

    Fig. S2. Pole figures.

    Fig. S3. TEM images.

    Fig. S4. Stress-strain records for olivine aggregates.

    Fig. S5. The 4–6.5 type cell assembly viewed in cross section.

    Fig. S6. Diffraction patterns.

    Fig. S7. X-ray radiographs.

    Fig. S8. Infrared spectra.

    Table S1. Experimental conditions and results.

    Table S2. Parameters for the flow laws of olivine aggregates.

    Table S3. Flow law parameters of olivine used for the calculation of deformation mechanism maps.

    References (53, 54)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Details on microstructural observations
    • Fig. S1. Microstructures of the samples.
    • Fig. S2. Pole figures.
    • Fig. S3. TEM images.
    • Fig. S4. Stress-strain records for olivine aggregates.
    • Fig. S5. The 4–6.5 type cell assembly viewed in cross section.
    • Fig. S6. Diffraction patterns.
    • Fig. S7. X-ray radiographs.
    • Fig. S8. Infrared spectra.
    • References (53, 54)

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Table S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Experimental conditions and results.
    • Table S2 (Microsoft Excel format). Parameters for the flow laws of olivine aggregates.
    • Table S3 (Microsoft Excel format). Flow law parameters of olivine used for the calculation of deformation mechanism maps.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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