Research ArticleHEALTH AND MEDICINE

Serine one-carbon catabolism with formate overflow

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Science Advances  28 Oct 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 10, e1601273
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1601273

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Abstract

Serine catabolism to glycine and a one-carbon unit has been linked to the anabolic requirements of proliferating mammalian cells. However, genome-scale modeling predicts a catabolic role with one-carbon release as formate. We experimentally prove that in cultured cancer cells and nontransformed fibroblasts, most of the serine-derived one-carbon units are released from cells as formate, and that formate release is dependent on mitochondrial reverse 10-CHO-THF synthetase activity. We also show that in cancer cells, formate release is coupled to mitochondrial complex I activity, whereas in nontransformed fibroblasts, it is partially insensitive to inhibition of complex I activity. We demonstrate that in mice, about 50% of plasma formate is derived from serine and that serine starvation or complex I inhibition reduces formate synthesis in vivo. These observations transform our understanding of one-carbon metabolism and have implications for the treatment of diabetes and cancer with complex I inhibitors.

Keywords
  • Serine metabolism
  • one-carbon metabolism
  • folate metabolism
  • overflow metabolism
  • mitochondria metabolism
  • metformin

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, so long as the resultant use is not for commercial advantage and provided the original work is properly cited.

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