Research ArticleCONSERVATION ECOLOGY

Incorporating explicit geospatial data shows more species at risk of extinction than the current Red List

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Science Advances  09 Nov 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 11, e1601367
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1601367
  • Fig. 1 Small-ranged birds.

    Six study regions outlined in black were overlaid on a map of concentration of small-ranged birds (n = 4964 species with ranges smaller than the median) from BirdLife International and NatureServe (37).

  • Fig. 2 Range refinement process.

    Blue outlines show original range from Jenkins et al. (2); light blue fill shows range after being refined by elevation, and black fill shows range after being refined by elevation and forest for six endemic birds of the Atlantic Coast Forest in Brazil: (A) Serra do Mar tyrant-manakin (Neopelma chrysolophum), (B) grey-winged cotinga (Tijuca condita), (C) Rio de Janeiro antbird (Cercomacra brasiliana), (D) ochre-marked parakeet (Pyrrhura cruentata), (E) red-billed curassow (Crax blumenbachii), and (F) striated softtail (Thripophaga macroura). Bird illustrations from del Hoyo et al. (34) were reproduced with permission.

  • Fig. 3 Threat category reassessment for the Atlantic Forest of Brazil throughout the range refining process.

    The left axis shows thresholds for the extent of occurrence of IUCN threat categories: critically endangered (<100 km2), endangered (<5000 km2), vulnerable (<20,000 km2), and nonthreatened (>20,000 km2). The solid bars reflect the current global IUCN categories. Bird illustrations show examples for six endemic birds from Fig. 2 (Serra do Mar tyrant-manakin, grey-winged cotinga, Rio de Janeiro antbird, ochre-marked parakeet, red-billed curassow, and striated softtail). Illustrations from del Hoyo et al. (34) were reproduced with permission.

  • Fig. 4 Threat category reassessment for the six regions throughout the range refining process.

    The left axis shows thresholds for the extent of occurrence of IUCN threat categories: critically endangered (<100 km2), endangered (<5000 km2), vulnerable (<20,000 km2), and nonthreatened (>20,000 km2). The solid bars reflect the current global IUCN categories. The regions included are as follows: Atlantic Forest in Brazil, Central America, Western Andes in Colombia, Madagascar, Sumatra, and Southeast Asia.

  • Fig. 5 Percentage of range within protected areas for current and recommended threatened birds in six biodiversity hotspots.

    Percentage of the range refined by elevation and forest that is within the protected areas for species classified as threatened by either IUCN or our analyses (that is, critically endangered, endangered, or vulnerable). In red are those species that have refined ranges comparable to species with a higher level of threat than what IUCN suggests. Those in gray have the same level, and those in purple are in a lower level. The Atlantic Forest, Central America, the Western Andes of Colombia, Madagascar, Southeast Asia, and Sumatra have 57, 93, 23, 39, 65, and 20 species, respectively. The pie chart shows the distribution of range sizes for the 0% and 1 to 10% range protected categories (4).

  • Fig. 6 Concentrations of endemic and threatened bird species in six biodiversity hotspots.

    Left: Original ranges. Right: Ranges after refined by elevation and forest. (A) Atlantic Forest in Brazil. (B) Western Andes in Colombia. (C) Madagascar. (D) Sumatra. (E) Central America. (F) Southeast Asia.

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/11/e1601367/DC1

    Additional notes on methods

    fig. S1. Threat category reassessment for Central America throughout the range refining process.

    fig. S2. Threat category reassessment for Madagascar throughout the range refining process.

    fig. S3. Threat category reassessment for Southeast Asia throughout the range refining process.

    fig. S4. Threat category reassessment for Sumatra throughout the range refining process.

    fig. S5. Threat category reassessment for the Western Andes of Colombia throughout the range refining process.

    table S1. Lists of bird species included in extinction risk and conservation priority analyses for the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, Central America, the Western Andes of Colombia, Southeast Asia, Madagascar, and Sumatra.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Additional notes on methods
    • fig. S1. Threat category reassessment for Central America throughout the range refining process.
    • fig. S2. Threat category reassessment for Madagascar throughout the range refining process.
    • fig. S3. Threat category reassessment for Southeast Asia throughout the range refining process.
    • fig. S4. Threat category reassessment for Sumatra throughout the range refining process.
    • fig. S5. Threat category reassessment for the Western Andes of Colombia throughout the range refining process.
    • table S1. Lists of bird species included in extinction risk and conservation priority analyses for the Atlantic Forest of Brazil, Central America, the Western Andes of Colombia, Southeast Asia, Madagascar, and Sumatra.

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