Research ArticleDEVELOPMENTAL ECONOMICS

Livestock vaccinations translate into increased human capital and school attendance by girls

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Science Advances  14 Dec 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 12, e1601410
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1601410
  • Table 1 Determinants of ECF vaccine adoption.
    Number of vaccinated
    adult cattle
    Number of vaccinated 1- to
    2-year-old cattle
    Number of vaccinated
    calves
    Number of cattle0.235***0.375***0.562***
    Fraction of exotic breed0.490***0.443***0.665***
    Expected milk loss due to ECF0.111***0.0440.043*
    Vaccine information source: Nongovernmental organization0.086*0.0510.022
    Vaccine information source: Farmers0.0140.0610.106**
    Service provider: Community animal health worker−0.375***0.028−0.019
    Service provider: Veterinary supply shop−0.144***−0.091**−0.147*
    Intercept term0.971−0.079−0.578
    Number of observations356356356
    R2, pseudo-R20.440.420.50

    *P = 0.1 (level of significance).

    **P = 0.05 (level of significance).

    ***P = 0.01 (level of significance).

    †Elasticities (continuous regressors).

    ‡Percent change (binary regressors).

    • Table 2 Impact of ECF vaccination on milk production and prevention of mortality.
      Average milk (liters)
      per cow
      Total ECF
      attributable deaths
      Adult ECF
      attributable deaths
      1- to 2-year-old ECF
      attributable deaths
      Calves ECF
      attributable deaths
      Fraction of vaccinated adults0.080***
      Number of vaccinated cattle†‡−0.056*
      Number of cattle0.239***
      Number of vaccinated adults†‡0.010
      Number of adult cattle0.089
      Number of vaccinated 1- to 2-year-old cattle†‡0.004
      Number of 1- to 2-year-old cattle0.148**
      Number of vaccinated calves†‡−0.086***
      Number of calves0.228***
      Fraction of exotic breed0.187***−0.173***−0.265**−0.153*−0.118*
      Grazing management§0.092**0.093*0.0680.198***−0.003
      Intercept term−0.1901.089***0.495−0.197−0.378
      Number of observations386349351352352
      R2, pseudo-R20.420.090.050.080.08

      *P = 0.1 (level of significance).

      **P = 0.05 (level of significance).

      ***P = 0.01 (level of significance).

      †Elasticities (continuous regressors).

      ‡Predicted value.

      §Percent change (binary regressors).

      • Table 3 Parameter estimates for expenditures on education, human health, and food.
        Education expenditureHuman health expenditureFood expenditure
        Number of vaccinated cattle†‡0.088**0.0420.056***
        Household size0.701***0.351***0.326***
        Off-farm income, ≤5000 KSh§Base case
        Off-farm income, 5000–10,000 KSh§0.0910.044−0.083
        Off-farm income, 10,000–20,000 KSh§0.498***0.456***0.182*
        Off-farm income, 20,000–40,000 KSh§0.549*0.573**0.108
        Off-farm income, 40,000–80,000 KSh§0.707**0.350*0.204***
        Off-farm income, >80,000 KSh§1.005***0.707**0.145
        Intercept term1.916***0.823***0.184**
        Number of observations346350346
        R2, pseudo-R20.260.150.27

        *P = 0.1 (level of significance).

        **P = 0.05 (level of significance).

        ***P = 0.01 (level of significance).

        †Elasticities (continuous regressors).

        ‡Predicted value.

        §Coefficients (binary regressors).

        Supplementary Materials

        • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/12/e1601410/DC1

          Supplementary Text

          table S1. Descriptions of variables used in analysis.

          table S2. Summary statistics for variables used in the regressions.

          table S3. Determinants of ECF vaccine adoption and antibiotic treatment.

          table S4. Impact of ECF vaccination on milk production and prevention of mortality.

          table S5. Parameter estimates for expenditures on education, human health, and food.

          table S6. Poisson regression models of children in school correlated with ECF deaths or vaccinated adult cattle.

          table S7. Parameter estimates for expenditures on education, human health, and food with predicted livestock profit.

          References (26, 27)

        • Supplementary Materials

          This PDF file includes:

          • Supplementary Text
          • table S1. Descriptions of variables used in analysis.
          • table S2. Summary statistics for variables used in the regressions.
          • table S3. Determinants of ECF vaccine adoption and antibiotic treatment.
          • table S4. Impact of ECF vaccination on milk production and prevention of mortality.
          • table S5. Parameter estimates for expenditures on education, human health, and food.
          • table S6. Poisson regression models of children in school correlated with ECF deaths or vaccinated adult cattle.
          • table S7. Parameter estimates for expenditures on education, human health, and food with predicted livestock profit.
          • References (26, 27)

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