Research ArticleCLIMATE SCIENCE

Ocean acidification causes structural deformities in juvenile coral skeletons

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Science Advances  19 Feb 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 2, e1501130
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501130
  • Fig. 1 X-ray microscopy and SEM images of 1-month-old coral skeletons under the four temperature-Pco2 treatments (A to P).

    Treatments include control (A to D), high T (E to H), high Pco2 (I to L), and high T + Pco2 (M to P). 3D x-ray images: top-down view (A, E, I, and M) and side view (B, F, J, and N). Scale bars, 500 μm. SEM images: top of the corallite wall (C, G, K, and O) and a tertiary septum (D, H, L, and P). Scale bars, 10 μm. The four images shown in each row are of a single, representative individual from each treatment. See figs. S5 to S8 for images of the other individuals from each treatment.

  • Fig. 2 Fractures and deformed skeletal structures in high Pco2–treated corals.

    Fractures in the septa (A and B) and corallite wall (C and D). Small sections of missing septa and synapticulae (E and F). Gross deformities, with large sections of the skeleton missing or malformed (G and H).

  • Fig. 3 Quantitative output from x-ray microscopy scans of 1-month-old coral skeletons under the four temperature-Pco2 treatments (mean ± SE).

    (A to F) Measurements include (A) SA/vol ratio, (B) diameter, (C) height, (D) basal plate thickness, (E) corallite wall thickness, and (F) tertiary septa length/width ratio. Factors [temperature, Pco2, or their interaction (temperature *Pco2)] significantly contributing to differences between treatments are indicated by ★ at the top of the graph (n = 5 individuals per treatment). See table S2 for details on statistical tests.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/2/e1501130/DC1

    Fig. S1. Variation in seawater pH (A), total alkalinity (B), Pco2 (C), and aragonite saturation state (D) in each treatment for the duration of the experiment.

    Fig. S2. Variation in pH with time of day for each treatment.

    Fig. S3. Top-down and side-view 3D x-ray images identifying the key skeletal structures discussed in this study.

    Fig. S4. Examples of manual measurements of diameter, corallite wall thickness (A and B), tertiary septa length/width ratio (C and D), and height and basal plate thickness (E and F).

    Fig. S5. All remaining individuals from the control (that is, excluding the individual shown in Fig. 1).

    Fig. S6. All remaining individuals from the high T treatment (that is, excluding the individual shown in Fig. 1).

    Fig. S7. All remaining individuals from the high Pco2 treatment (that is, excluding the individual shown in Fig. 1).

    Fig. S8. All remaining individuals from the high T + Pco2 treatment (that is, excluding the individual shown in Fig. 1).

    Fig. S9. nMDS ordination in two dimensions of quantitative output from 3D x-ray microscopy scans of juvenile coral skeletons, including SA/vol (A), diameter (B), height (C), basal plate thickness (D), corallite wall thickness (E), and tertiary septa length/width ratio (F) for individuals grown under different temperature-Pco2 regimes.

    Fig. S10. nMDS ordination in two dimensions, pooling all measures from 3D x-ray microscopy scans of juvenile coral skeletons.

    Table S1. Physical and chemical conditions maintained in each treatment for the duration of the experiment [mean ± SD; Foster et al. (23)].

    Table S2. Two-way ANOVAs testing for significant effects of temperature, Pco2, and interactions between the two factors (temperature * Pco2) on x-ray microscopy measurements of juvenile coral skeletons.

    Movie S1. Skeleton of a 1-month-old coral recruit grown under control (24°C and 250 μatm) conditions.

    Movie S2. Skeleton of a 1-month-old coral recruit grown under high Pco2 (24°C and 900 μatm) conditions.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. Variation in seawater pH (A), total alkalinity (B), PCO2 (C), and aragonite saturation state (D) in each treatment for the duration of the experiment.
    • Fig. S2. Variation in pH with time of day for each treatment.
    • Fig. S3. Top-down and side-view 3D x-ray images identifying the key skeletal structures discussed in this study.
    • Fig. S4. Examples of manual measurements of diameter, corallite wall thickness (A and B), tertiary septa length/width ratio (C and D), and height and basal plate thickness (E and F).
    • Fig. S5. All remaining individuals from the control (that is, excluding the individual shown in Fig. 1).
    • Fig. S6. All remaining individuals from the high T treatment (that is, excluding the individual shown in Fig. 1).
    • Fig. S7. All remaining individuals from the high PCO2 treatment (that is, excluding the individual shown in Fig. 1).
    • Fig. S8. All remaining individuals from the high T + PCO2 treatment (that is, excluding the individual shown in Fig. 1).
    • Fig. S9. nMDS ordination in two dimensions of quantitative output from 3D x-ray microscopy scans of juvenile coral skeletons, including SA/vol (A), diameter (B), height (C), basal plate thickness (D), corallite wall thickness (E), and tertiary septa length/width ratio (F) for individuals grown under different temperature-PCO2 regimes.
    • Fig. S10. nMDS ordination in two dimensions, pooling all measures from 3D x-ray microscopy scans of juvenile coral skeletons.
    • Table S1. Physical and chemical conditions maintained in each treatment for the duration of the experiment mean ± SD; Foster et al. (23).
    • Table S2. Two-way ANOVAs testing for significant effects of temperature, PCO2, and interactions between the two factors (temperature * PCO2) on x-ray microscopy measurements of juvenile coral skeletons.
    • Legends for movies S1 and S2

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Skeleton of a 1-month-old coral recruit grown under control (24°C and 250 μatm) conditions.
    • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Skeleton of a 1-month-old coral recruit grown under high PCO2 (24°C and 900 μatm) conditions.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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