Research ArticleSOCIAL SCIENCES

Women’s connectivity in extreme networks

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Science Advances  10 Jun 2016:
Vol. 2, no. 6, e1501742
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501742
  • Fig. 1 Online extreme network under pressure (ISIS).

    (A) Illustrative, time-resolved snapshots of a subset of the global online pro-ISIS network on VKontake.com (www.vk.com). Over a 2-month period in early 2015, we observed 16,931 females and 24,883 males. (B) Female versus male average BCs over time. Women show frequent large peaks (red) as compared to men (blue). (C) Female versus male degree centralities averaged over time. The women’s value is more than 4 SDs σ (that is, Z > 4) larger than the mean null model result obtained by randomly shuffling node genders, and much larger than the men’s value. The opposite is true for men. (D) Left: The central node has high BC and high degree centrality. Peripheral nodes have low values of each. Right: The central node has high BC but low degree centrality.

  • Fig. 2 Offline extreme network under pressure (PIRA).

    (A) Illustrative, time-resolved snapshots of a subset of the PIRA network following its self-organized restructuring between the end of the 1970s and the beginning of the 1980s. (B) Starting from the early 1980s, PIRA’s productivity increases in terms of attacks with IEDs. (C) Similar increase in BC of women over the same period. (D) Degree centrality over the same period. (E) Results of a generative model (see fig. S3) showing good agreement with the empirical data for the PIRA network, for the fraction of isolated agents (top) and average number of links per agent (bottom).

  • Fig. 3 Lifetime of groups and neighbors in the network.

    (A) For a larger ratio of women to men in a pro-ISIS online group, we observe, on average, an increase in the group’s lifetime (Pearson’s r = 0.28, P < 0.1). (B) We observe that PIRA actors directly connected to women have a longer average lifetime as compared to actors directly connected to men. Larger values for women are statistically significant as compared to a null model that randomly shuffles the gender of PIRA members.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2/6/e1501742/DC1

    fig. S1. Importance of BC in a network such as pro-ISIS or PIRA.

    fig. S2. PIRA productivity not associated with an increase in the number of PIRA actors.

    fig. S3. Schematic of our generative multiagent model.

    fig. S4. Evidence that the results of high BC are not a consequence of a few exceptional women.

    fig. S5. BC broken down by particular operational roles.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Importance of BC in a network such as pro-ISIS or PIRA.
    • fig. S2. PIRA productivity not associated with an increase in the number of PIRA
      actors.
    • fig. S3. Schematic of our generative multiagent model.
    • fig. S4. Evidence that the results of high BC are not a consequence of a few
      exceptional women.
    • fig. S5. BC broken down by particular operational roles.

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