Research ArticleGUT MICROBIOTA

Increased weight gain by C-section: Functional significance of the primordial microbiome

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Science Advances  11 Oct 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 10, eaao1874
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao1874
  • Fig. 1 Effect of C-section on developmental changes in body mass.

    Change in body mass (in grams) in 69 mice discordant to birth mode during early development, relative to 4 weeks of age (postweaning). Lines represent the average, and the shaded area represents 95% confidence interval. Significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, with resampling. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. At 15 weeks of age, C-section (CS) females gained 70% more weight than controls versus 14% increased weight gain in males. VD, vaginally born control.

  • Fig. 2 β diversity of gut communities from mice born vaginally or by C-section during early development.

    (A) Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) of the fecal microbiota by birth mode at all time points. Communities segregate significantly by birth mode (P = 0.001). PC, principal coordinate. (B) PCoA of fecal microbiota of mice born vaginally or by C-section (by age). Differences in fecal microbiota were significant during early development, from weaning to week 6 (P = 0.001). (C) Microbiome maturity indices calculated by a random forest model trained on microbial communities from vaginally delivered mice. (D) Unweighted UniFrac distances of fecal communities at any age from 6 weeks of age of vaginally born mice. Distances are highest at weaning and at 6 weeks of age. For (A) and (B), significance was determined pairwise by ANOSIM test, with resampling 999 times. For (D), significance was determined pairwise by ANOVA test, with resampling 999 times.

  • Fig. 3 Birth mode differences in fecal α diversity and taxonomic composition during early development.

    (A) Chao1 index. Diversity in controls was higher at weaning and drops between week 3 and week 5 but increases by week 6, whereas no major age changes were observed in C-section–born mice before week 5. Significance was determined pairwise by ANOVA test, with resampling 999 times; blue brackets compare vaginally born communities, red brackets compare C-section communities, and black brackets compare birth modes. (B) Heat map of relative abundance. (C and D) Average relative abundance of bacterial taxa (C) with significant Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) scores (D) by delivery mode from weaning to 6 weeks of age.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/10/eaao1874/DC1

    fig. S1. Experimental design.

    fig. S2. Actual body mass in 69 mice discordant to birth mode during early development.

    fig. S3. Percent fat in 24 mice discordant to birth mode at 15 weeks of age.

    fig. S4. PCoA of Bray-Curtis distances between fecal communities from weeks 3 to 6 in mice born vaginally or by C-section.

    fig. S5. Fecal β diversity in males and females discordant to birth mode at different ages.

    fig. S6. Fecal β diversity in mice delivered by C-section or vaginally born controls by gender, at different ages.

    fig. S7. Fecal intra– and inter–birth-mode-group UniFrac community distances in male and female mice at different ages.

    fig. S8. Fecal intra– and inter–gender-group UniFrac community distances in C-section and vaginally born controls at different ages.

    fig. S9. Fecal α diversity in mice discordant to birth mode at different ages.

    fig. S10. Rarefaction curves of PD whole tree and observed species α diversity metrics.

    fig. S11. LEfSE of communities at weaning (week 3) and young adulthood (week 6) by delivery mode.

    fig. S12. Average relative abundance of 24 birth mode LEfSe–discriminant taxa over 3 to 6 weeks of age.

    table S1. Number of fecal specimens from mouse lineages differing in birth mode.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Experimental design.
    • fig. S2. Actual body mass in 69 mice discordant to birth mode during early development.
    • fig. S3. Percent fat in 24 mice discordant to birth mode at 15 weeks of age.
    • fig. S4. PCoA of Bray-Curtis distances between fecal communities from weeks 3 to 6 in mice born vaginally or by C-section.
    • fig. S5. Fecal β diversity in males and females discordant to birth mode at different ages.
    • fig. S6. Fecal β diversity in mice delivered by C-section or vaginally born controls by gender, at different ages.
    • fig. S7. Fecal intra– and inter–birth-mode-group UniFrac community distances in male and female mice at different ages.
    • fig. S8. Fecal intra– and inter–gender-group UniFrac community distances in C-section and vaginally born controls at different ages.
    • fig. S9. Fecal α diversity in mice discordant to birth mode at different ages.
    • fig. S10. Rarefaction curves of PD whole tree and observed species α diversity metrics.
    • fig. S11. LEfSE of communities at weaning (week 3) and young adulthood (week 6) by delivery mode.
    • fig. S12. Average relative abundance of 24 birth mode LEfSe–discriminant taxa over 3 to 6 weeks of age.
    • table S1. Number of fecal specimens from mouse lineages differing in birth mode.

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