Research ArticleECOLOGY

Biodiversity recovery following delta-wide measures for flood risk reduction

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Science Advances  08 Nov 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 11, e1602762
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1602762
  • Fig. 1 Biodiversity changes in the embanked floodplains of the Rhine delta between 1997 and 2012.

    (A) Location of the distributaries of the Rhine delta within the drainage basin in northwest Europe, center at 5.5°E, 52.0°N. (B) Spatial distribution of the flood hazard reduction at the once-every-1250-year flood. (C) Bivariate distribution of changes in PotAll and ActAll between 1997 and 2012. (D) Spatial distribution of the changes in aggregated biodiversity (ΔActAll) in all 179 floodplain sections. The colored lines alongside the sections indicate the measures implemented.

  • Fig. 2 Temporal overview of habitat diversity (HabDiv) and saturation (SatTax) for the subsampled species observations (worst case).

    (A) Biodiversity changes over all floodplain sections with more than one observation in all periods (1997, 2005, 2008, and 2012). The x axis represents habitat diversity for each taxonomic group (HabDiv; scale, 0 to 100%); the y axis indicates the biodiversity saturation (SatTax = ActTax/PotTax; scale, 0 to 100%). (B) Temporal development of mean SatTax and habitat diversity per functional group. Note that the SatTax values of functional groups with high dispersal rates are higher and increase faster than species that disperse slowly.

  • Fig. 3 Effects of floodplain measures on ΔActTax (base year 1997) for species functional groups.

    Lines indicate mean values with transparent uncertainty bands representing ±1 SD. Blue dots represent significant differences in ΔActTax at that year (P < 0.1, by Mann-Whitney rank sum test carried out for 2005, 2008, and 2012). Floodplain sections with river restoration measures (in blue) mostly exceed the remaining floodplains (in red). Results for all functional groups are given in figs. S5 to S7.

  • Fig. 4 Transition matrix of aggregated ecotopes between 1997 and 2012 for the full study area.

    The matrix should be read from left to right. For example, of the surface area of agriculture in 1997, 2 ha was converted to side channel, 20 ha was converted to lake/harbor, and 989 ha remained the same in 2012. Colors indicate the cells representing succession, side channel construction, and natural management floodplain meadows. The same kind of matrix was computed for each floodplain section to determine the extent and type of the land cover change.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/11/e1602762/DC1

    A detailed description of the BIOSAFE model

    Details of the BIOSAFE input

    A list of parameter abbreviations

    fig. S1. Flow chart of the BIOSAFE methodology per floodplain section.

    fig. S2. Graphical example of BIOSAFE parameter computation.

    fig. S3. Number of observations per time slice and per surface area of the observation.

    fig. S4. Temporal overview of habitat diversity (HabDiv) and saturation (SatTax) for all species observations (best case).

    fig. S5. Effects of floodplain measures on ΔPotTax per functional group.

    fig. S6. Effects of floodplain measures on ΔActTax per functional group, based on best-case scenario.

    fig. S7. Effects of floodplain measures on ΔActTax per functional group, based on worst-case scenario.

    table S1. Overview of ecotope classes included in BIOSAFE and connected land cover classes.

    table S2. Overview of the data collection protocols in the NDFF database.

    table S3. Number of species per functional group.

    Excel file with BIOSAFE input and output

    References (5358)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • A detailed description of the BIOSAFE model
    • Details of the BIOSAFE input
    • A list of parameter abbreviations
    • fig. S1. Flow chart of the BIOSAFE methodology per floodplain section.
    • fig. S2. Graphical example of BIOSAFE parameter computation.
    • fig. S3. Number of observations per time slice and per surface area of the observation.
    • fig. S4. Temporal overview of habitat diversity (HabDiv) and saturation (SatTax) for all species observations (best case).
    • fig. S5. Effects of floodplain measures on ΔPotTax per functional group.
    • fig. S6. Effects of floodplain measures on ΔActTax per functional group, based on best-case scenario.
    • fig. S7. Effects of floodplain measures on ΔActTax per functional group, based on worst-case scenario.
    • table S1. Overview of ecotope classes included in BIOSAFE and connected land cover classes.
    • table S2. Overview of the data collection protocols in the NDFF database.
    • table S3. Number of species per functional group.
    • References (53–58)

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

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