Research ArticleCLIMATOLOGY

Climate change and water management in the biblical city of Dan

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Science Advances  22 Nov 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 11, e1700954
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700954
  • Fig. 1 Geographical location of the study area in Israel.

    The study site, denoted by a yellow star, is located in the northern part of the Hula Valley, Upper Galilee. The main archaeological sites of Israel and surroundings countries for the period under consideration are displayed on the map. The original map was created by P. Pentsch (Aix-Marseille University).

  • Fig. 2 Aerial photograph of Tel Dan, looking east toward Mt. Hermon.

    The monumental gate complexes that dominate the photo are mainly attributed to Strata III to Strata II, Iron Age IIB (~850 to 730 BCE), when the city was a national cult center of the Kingdom of Israel.

  • Fig. 3 Reconstructed environmental dynamics at Tel Dan from the Bronze Age [2200 calibrated years (cal yr) BCE] to the Roman period (100 cal yr CE).

    The PCA-Axis1, termed ecological shifts (A), settlement intensity (B), oleiculture (C), and water level (D) are all displayed as a locally weighted linear regression (LOESS) smoothing (with bootstrap and smoothing 0.05) with sinusoidal regressions (550 and 1500 years, P < 0.001). A boxplot was added to each curve to mark the extreme scores. The curves are plotted on a linear timescale (BCE/CE). At the top, an archaeological scale is denoted. The main events at Tel Dan are indicated in purple, whereas the two external events (89, 90) are displayed in black. The shaded blue lines indicate the main periods of settlement. At the base of the graph, an Egyptian chronology has also been added. nat. var., natural variability; IP, intermediate period.

  • Fig. 4 River discharge to the alluvial fan of the Nahal Sion.

    The curve is displayed with two sinusoidal regressions (550 years in blue and 1500 years in red, P < 0.001). A boxplot indicates the extreme scores and the natural variability. The curve is plotted on a linear timescale and shown with an archaeological framework.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/11/e1700954/DC1

    Supplementary text. Tel Dan—Summary of the archaeological data

    fig. S1. Pollen-based ecological clusters detected in the Upper Galilee from the Bronze Age to the Roman period.

    fig. S2. Pollen diagram showing the dynamics of vegetation assemblages from the Bronze Age to the Roman period.

    fig. S3. Correlations between the clusters, the PCA-Axis1, agriculture, and surface water.

    fig. S4. Ecological shifts recorded at Tel Dan compared with records from Syria (Tell Tweini) and Cyprus (Hala Sultan Tekke).

    fig. S5. The chronology of ecological shifts recorded at Tel Dan compared with Jeita Cave (δ18O and δ13C), Lebanon.

    fig. S6. Periodicity of ecological shifts in the Upper Galilee from the Bronze Age (2200 cal yr BCE) to the Roman period (100 cal yr CE).

    fig. S7. Agriculture and pastoral activities in and around Tel Dan from the Bronze Age (2200 BCE) to the Roman period (100 CE).

    fig. S8. Map of the Tel Dan area showing Mount Hermon, the Golan Heights, the Nahal Sion, and the Dan springs.

    table S1. Details of the 14C age determinations for the core TD-1.

    table S2. The strata of Tel Dan and their salient characteristics.

    table S3. Estimated settled area and settlement density at Tel Dan by stratum.

    table S4. Selected radiocarbon dates from sites linked to Tel Dan by ceramic horizons and by period.

    Source data

    References (91116)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary text. Tel Dan—Summary of the archaeological data
    • fig. S1. Pollen-based ecological clusters detected in the Upper Galilee from the Bronze Age to the Roman period.
    • fig. S2. Pollen diagram showing the dynamics of vegetation assemblages from the Bronze Age to the Roman period.
    • fig. S3. Correlations between the clusters, the PCA-Axis1, agriculture, and surface water.
    • fig. S4. Ecological shifts recorded at Tel Dan compared with records from Syria (Tell Tweini) and Cyprus (Hala Sultan Tekke).
    • fig. S5. The chronology of ecological shifts recorded at Tel Dan compared with Jeita Cave (δ18O and δ13C), Lebanon.
    • fig. S6. Periodicity of ecological shifts in the Upper Galilee from the Bronze Age (2200 cal yr BCE) to the Roman period (100 cal yr CE).
    • fig. S7. Agriculture and pastoral activities in and around Tel Dan from the Bronze Age (2200 BCE) to the Roman period (100 CE).
    • fig. S8. Map of the Tel Dan area showing Mount Hermon, the Golan Heights, the Nahal Sion, and the Dan springs.
    • table S1. Details of the 14C age determinations for the core TD-1.
    • table S2. The strata of Tel Dan and their salient characteristics.
    • table S3. Estimated settled area and settlement density at Tel Dan by stratum.
    • table S4. Selected radiocarbon dates from sites linked to Tel Dan by ceramic horizons and by period.
    • References (91–116)

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