Research ArticleAPPLIED ECOLOGY

Ecological restoration success is higher for natural regeneration than for active restoration in tropical forests

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Science Advances  08 Nov 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 11, e1701345
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701345
  • Fig. 1 Meta-analysis controlling for the biotic and abiotic factors.

    Bootstrapped mean response ratio for biodiversity (plants, invertebrates, birds, mammals, and herpetofauna) and vegetation structure (cover, density, biomass, height, and litter) in natural regeneration or active restoration systems compared with reference systems controlled for the four biotic and abiotic factors (amount of forest cover at the landscape scale, total annual precipitation, past disturbance, and the time elapsed since restoration started). n, total sample size; sl, number of study landscapes (sample size used in each resampling to avoid spatial pseudoreplication). Each box plot shows the median value (central solid line) and first and third quartile ranges (left and right outer borders of the box) of 1000 resampled (with replacement) mean response ratios. Dashed lines indicate a response ratio of 0, that is, no difference to reference systems. Notches in boxes represent 95% confidence intervals, and thus, nonoverlapping notches between boxes imply a significant difference (66). *, not controlled for forest cover (always significantly different between natural regeneration and active restoration systems). For mammals and herpetofauna, restoration success was not estimated in active restoration systems because of the small number of study landscapes.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/11/e1701345/DC1

    fig. S1. Meta-analysis without controlling for the biotic and abiotic factors.

    fig. S2. Regression and box plot analyses for biodiversity.

    fig. S3. Regression and box plot analyses for vegetation structure.

    table S1. Median values of response ratios for active restoration and natural regeneration systems compared with reference systems controlled for the four biotic and abiotic factors (forest cover at the landscape scale, total annual precipitation, past disturbance, and the time elapsed since restoration started) and percentage of enhancement of biodiversity and vegetation structure in natural regeneration with respect to active restoration systems.

    table S2. Median values of response ratios for active restoration and natural regeneration systems compared with reference systems without controlling for the four biotic and abiotic factors (forest cover at the landscape scale, total annual precipitation, past disturbance, and the time elapsed since restoration started) and percentage of enhancement of biodiversity and vegetation structure in natural regeneration with respect to active restoration systems.

    table S3. Selected papers with data available for the meta-analysis.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Meta-analysis without controlling for the biotic and abiotic factors.
    • fig. S2. Regression and box plot analyses for biodiversity.
    • fig. S3. Regression and box plot analyses for vegetation structure.
    • table S1. Median values of response ratios for active restoration and natural regeneration systems compared with reference systems controlled for the four biotic and abiotic factors (forest cover at the landscape scale, total annual precipitation, past disturbance, and the time elapsed since restoration started) and percentage of enhancement of biodiversity and vegetation structure in natural regeneration with respect to active restoration systems.
    • table S2. Median values of response ratios for active restoration and natural regeneration systems compared with reference systems without controlling for the four biotic and abiotic factors (forest cover at the landscape scale, total annual precipitation, past disturbance, and the time elapsed since restoration started) and percentage of enhancement of biodiversity and vegetation structure in natural regeneration with respect to active restoration systems.
    • table S3. Selected papers with data available for the meta-analysis.

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