Research ArticleAPPLIED ECOLOGY

Environmental controls on modern scleractinian coral and reef-scale calcification

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Science Advances  08 Nov 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 11, e1701356
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701356
  • Fig. 1 Map of Bermuda study sites and environmental controls on calcification.

    The buoy, sensors, and in situ growth are presented next to a bathymetry map of Bermuda showing the locations of Hog Reef and Crescent Reef. Structural equation modeling (SEM) connections show the interactions between environmental drivers and their effect on coral calcification. Chl α, chlorophyll a. (The Bermuda Map is courtesy of M. Shailer of the Department of Conservation Services, Government of Bermuda.)

  • Fig. 2 Hog Reef and Crescent Reef environmental data and coral calcification rates.

    Both environmental parameters and calcification reveal strong seasonal trends in this high-latitude (32°N) coral reef system. For Pco2 plots, blue denotes measured seawater Pco2, gray indicates measured atmospheric Pco2, and open circles represent seawater Pco2 calculated from DIC and TA bottle samples. For TA and DIC plots, dark gray triangles represent BATS seawater DIC and TA, pink circles represent reef seawater DIC, and purple circles represent reef seawater TA. For the coral growth rate plots, purple circles represent P. astreoides and green triangles represent D. labyrinthiformis each with ±1 SD. Gray circles with the blue axis represent calculated NEC ± uncertainty.

  • Fig. 3 Model estimates from the structural equation models.

    Each model estimate represents the SD change in calcification driven by a 1 SD increase in the given environmental parameter. Statistically significant model estimates (P < 0.05) are marked by stars.

  • Fig. 4 Climate model projections for Bermuda.

    Monthly CMIP5 model SST data were aggregated for Bermuda under RCP emissions pathways. (A) Mean rise in monthly SSTs predicted for Bermuda until 2100. The dashed line represents the +0.1°C decade−1 rate of potential coral acclimatization based on increasing calcification rates observed in 20th-century East Indian Ocean Porites coral cores (25). (B) Rise in maximum summer temperatures for each RCP emissions pathway relative to the 1°C coral bleaching threshold above maximum summer 2006–2016 model climatology assuming no acclimatization (Static Bleaching Threshold) and assuming a +0.1°C decade−1 acclimatization rate.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/11/e1701356/DC1

    fig. S1. Hog Reef and Crescent Reef environmental data for salinity, nutrients, and satellite chlorophyll a.

    fig. S2. Mesocosm seawater acidification experiment data.

    table S1. Model estimates from the structural ecosystem models.

    table S2. Bermuda coral community composition.

    table S3. Mesocosm seawater acidification experiment statistical summary.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Hog Reef and Crescent Reef environmental data for salinity, nutrients, and satellite chlorophyll a.
    • fig. S2. Mesocosm seawater acidification experiment data.
    • table S1. Model estimates from the structural ecosystem models.
    • table S2. Bermuda coral community composition.
    • table S3. Mesocosm seawater acidification experiment statistical summary.

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