Research ArticleChemistry

Stitching h-BN by atomic layer deposition of LiF as a stable interface for lithium metal anode

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Science Advances  29 Nov 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 11, eaao3170
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao3170
  • Fig. 1 SEM characterization.

    (A) Schematics of selective ALD LiF deposition on h-BN. (B) SEM characterization of 50 cycles of ALD LiF deposition on continuous h-BN. (C) SEM characterization of 50 cycles of ALD LiF deposition on the edge of h-BN.

  • Fig. 2 AFM and Auger characterization.

    (A) Top-view and side-view schematics of selective ALD LiF deposition on h-BN/Si. (B) AFM characterization of single-layer h-BN on a Si substrate. (C) Height profile of single-layer h-BN on a Si substrate. (D and E) Height profiles of ALD LiF–coated single-layer h-BN on a Si substrate. (F) AFM characterization of ALD LiF–coated single-layer h-BN on a Si substrate. (G) Elemental mapping of N, B, and F using Auger spectroscopy for h-BN/Si. (H) Elemental mapping of N, B, and F using Auger spectroscopy for LiF/h-BN/Si.

  • Fig. 3 TEM characterization.

    (A) TEM characterization of ALD LiF deposition on suspended h-BN. (B) Diffraction pattern of the highlighted blue area. (C) Comparison of particle densities of the highlighted green and red areas.

  • Fig. 4 SEM characterization of electrochemically plated Li.

    Schematics and SEM characterization of Li plating on Cu (A to C), h-BN/Cu (D to F), LiF/Cu (G to I), and LiF/h-BN/Cu (J to L). Li plating was performed at a rate of 0.5 mA/cm2 and a total capacity of 1 mA·hour/cm2 in ethylene carbonate (EC)/diethyl carbonate (DEC) electrolyte with 1 M LiPF6.

  • Fig. 5 Cycling performance of repeated Li plating/stripping on Cu, h-BN/Cu, LiF/Cu, and LiF/h-BN/Cu substrates in EC/DEC electrolyte containing 1 M LiPF6.

    (A) Coulombic efficiency (CE) versus cycle number plots. (B) Voltage versus capacity plot during second cycle. (C) Voltage versus capacity plot during the 46th cycle. (D) Voltage versus capacity plot during the 54th cycle. (E) Voltage versus capacity plot during the 90th cycle.

  • Fig. 6 SEM characterization of cross-section morphologies of electrochemically plated Li.

    SEM characterization of cross-section morphologies of Li deposited on LiF/h-BN/Cu (A) and pristine Cu (B) substrates after five cycles in EC/DEC electrolyte with 1 M LiPF6. SEM images were taken with a sample rotation angle of 52°.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/11/eaao3170/DC1

    fig. S1. SEM characterization of CVD h-BN.

    fig. S2. SEM characterization of ALD LiF on Si.

    fig. S3. SEM characterization of ALD LiF on h-BN/Si.

    fig. S4. SEM characterization of ALD LiF on h-BN/Cu.

    fig. S5. SEM characterization of ALD LiF on SS and Cu.

    fig. S6. XPS analysis of ALD LiF on Si.

    fig. S7. XPS analysis of ALD LiF on h-BN/Cu.

    fig. S8. Cycling performance of Cu, h-BN/Cu, and LiF/h-BN/Cu electrodes in carbonate electrolyte with additives.

    fig. S9. Optical images of Li-plated Cu, LiF/Cu, h-BN/Cu, and LiF/h-BN/Cu electrodes with different exposure times in the ambient environment.

    fig. S10. XPS analysis of the LiF/h-BN/Cu electrode after Li plating.

    fig. S11. Cycling performance of batteries with different amounts of electrolyte and failed battery with refilled electrolyte.

    References (5256)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. SEM characterization of CVD h-BN.
    • fig. S2. SEM characterization of ALD LiF on Si.
    • fig. S3. SEM characterization of ALD LiF on h-BN/Si.
    • fig. S4. SEM characterization of ALD LiF on h-BN/Cu.
    • fig. S5. SEM characterization of ALD LiF on SS and Cu.
    • fig. S6. XPS analysis of ALD LiF on Si.
    • fig. S7. XPS analysis of ALD LiF on h-BN/Cu.
    • fig. S8. Cycling performance of Cu, h-BN/Cu, and LiF/h-BN/Cu electrodes in carbonate electrolyte with additives.
    • fig. S9. Optical images of Li-plated Cu, LiF/Cu, h-BN/Cu, and LiF/h-BN/Cu electrodes with different exposure times in the ambient environment.
    • fig. S10. XPS analysis of the LiF/h-BN/Cu electrode after Li plating.
    • fig. S11. Cycling performance of batteries with different amounts of electrolyte and failed battery with refilled electrolyte.
    • References (52–56)

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