Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Strained hybrid perovskite thin films and their impact on the intrinsic stability of perovskite solar cells

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Science Advances  17 Nov 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 11, eaao5616
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao5616
  • Fig. 1 Characterization of strain.

    (A) Out-of-plane XRD of the MAPbI3 annealed film (AF), scraped powder (SP), single-crystal powder (SCP), and non-annealed film (NAF). a.u., arbitrary unit. (B) In-plane and out-of-plane XRD of AF and out-of-plane XRD of SCP. (C and D) Schematic architecture of the out-of-plane (C) and in-plane (D) XRD.

  • Fig. 2 Schematic diagram and XRD of the strain formation process.

    (A) Without substrate, the perovskite forming at 100°C contracts vertically and laterally during cooling. (B) With the substrate adhesion, the annealed perovskite film only contracts vertically. (C and D) In situ out-of-plane XRD of scraped powder (C) and annealed film (D) at different temperatures.

  • Fig. 3 Strain impact on perovskite film stability.

    (A) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup of the films with different strains and photographs of the films with different strains after 500-hour illumination. (B) Out-of-plane XRD of the three films in (A).

  • Fig. 4 Strain and degradation of MAPbI3 film on the ITO/glass substrate.

    (A and B) Out-of-plane XRD of the annealed film on the ITO side (A) and glass side (B) as a function of illumination time. (C and D) Strain and degradation rate of the annealed film on the ITO side (C) and glass side (D) as a function of time concluded from (A) and (B).

  • Fig. 5 Ion migration properties of MAPbI3 films with different strains.

    (A to C) The temperature-dependent conductivity of the convex film (A), the flat film (B), and the concave film (C). Inset: Schematic diagram of the samples. (D) Variation of the activation energy of ion migration versus the strain in the MAPbI3 films.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/11/eaao5616/DC1

    fig. S1. Strain state of MAPbI3 films and scraped powder made by different methods on different substrates and with different compositions.

    fig. S2. In situ out-of-plane XRD and the calculated lattice parameter of the MAPbI3 powder under different temperatures.

    fig. S3. Strain state for MAPbI3 on PET substrate.

    fig. S4. Strain state of MAPbI3 films formed at different temperatures.

    fig. S5. Effect of post-annealing on strain state.

    fig. S6. Out-of-plane XRD of the MAPbI3 on a flexible substrate with different bending states.

    fig. S7. Distribution of strain on the substrate.

    fig. S8. Morphology of MAPbI3 film on PTAA/ITO and PTAA/glass substrates.

    fig. S9. Degradation of strained MAPbI3 film on SnO2 substrate under illumination.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Strain state of MAPbI3 films and scraped powder made by different methods on different substrates and with different compositions.
    • fig. S2. In situ out-of-plane XRD and the calculated lattice parameter of the MAPbI3 powder under different temperatures.
    • fig. S3. Strain state for MAPbI3 on PET substrate.
    • fig. S4. Strain state of MAPbI3 films formed at different temperatures.
    • fig. S5. Effect of post-annealing on strain state.
    • fig. S6. Out-of-plane XRD of the MAPbI3 on a flexible substrate with different bending states.
    • fig. S7. Distribution of strain on the substrate.
    • fig. S8. Morphology of MAPbI3 film on PTAA/ITO and PTAA/glass substrates.
    • fig. S9. Degradation of strained MAPbI3 film on SnO2 substrate under illumination.

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