Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Skiving stacked sheets of paper into test paper for rapid and multiplexed assay

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Science Advances  01 Dec 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 12, eaao4862
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao4862
  • Fig. 1 The design and fabrication of PBCs and the assay system.

    (A) Fabrication of PBCs. We fabricated the PBCs by gluing the white papers, the red papers, and the papers soaked with capture probes together according to the Codabar rules and skived the combined papers into a small size (6 mm × 0.5 mm). V1 and V2, V3 and V4, and V5 and V6 are variable regions used for target 1, target 2, and target 3. N, negative; P, positive. (B) Assay system of the PBCs. We placed the PBCs on the NC membrane of the LFTSs and pressed it with an external force during the assay. After the detection, we rotated the PBC 180° for the readout of the results. Ab, antibody. (C) Readout of the results. In an indirect or sandwich assay, when the targets are all positive, the result is read as “A:::A;” otherwise, the result is read as “A111A.”

  • Fig. 2 Characterization of the widths of the modules in the PBCs.

    (A) Pictures of the PBCs taken by cameras and microscopes. (B) The thickness of the narrow and wide modules consists of papers. (C) Table of the widths and deviations of the narrow bar, the narrow space, the wide bar, and the wide space.

  • Fig. 3 Simultaneous detection of drugs of abuse using the PBAS.

    (A) Negative and positive results of COC, MOR, and mAMP. Ag, antigen. (B) Comparison of the LOD of COC using the PBCs and LFTSs. C, control line; T, test line.

  • Fig. 4 Simultaneous detection of the infections of HBV, HCV, HIV-1, and TP using the PBAS.

    (A) Positive and negative results of the simultaneous detection of HBV surface antigen and human anti-HCV, HIV-1, and TP antibodies. (B) Detection of six samples from patients infected by HBV, HCV, HIV-1, and TP.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/12/eaao4862/DC1

    fig. S1. Characterization of the three kinds of paper (Grade 3MM Chr, Grade 1 Chr, and Grade 1).

    fig. S2. The dry tensile strength and wet tensile strength of the three kinds of paper (Grade 3MM Chr, Grade 1 Chr, and Grade 1).

    fig. S3. Characterization of the widths of the modules in the wet PBCs.

    fig. S4. Wetting behavior of the double-sided adhesive, the white paper, the red paper, and the paper soaked with protein.

    fig. S5. Characterization of the reaction regions on paper after the immunoassay.

    fig. S6. The repeatability of the PBAS.

    table S1. The detection of COC with the PBCs stored for 1 to 60 days.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Characterization of the three kinds of paper (Grade 3MM Chr, Grade 1 Chr, and Grade 1).
    • fig. S2. The dry tensile strength and wet tensile strength of the three kinds of paper (Grade 3MM Chr, Grade 1 Chr, and Grade 1).
    • fig. S3. Characterization of the widths of the modules in the wet PBCs.
    • fig. S4. Wetting behavior of the double-sided adhesive, the white paper, the red paper, and the paper soaked with protein.
    • fig. S5. Characterization of the reaction regions on paper after the immunoassay.
    • fig. S6. The repeatability of the PBAS.
    • table S1. The detection of COC with the PBCs stored for 1 to 60 days.

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