Research ArticleSOCIAL SCIENCES

Denial of service to same-sex and interracial couples: Evidence from a national survey experiment

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Science Advances  20 Dec 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 12, eaao5834
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao5834
  • Fig. 1 Percent of respondents who support business service refusal by experimental manipulations.

    Respondents were asked whether the business should be allowed to refuse or required to provide services to the couple in the vignette. Vignettes manipulated (i) type of business refusing services (self-employed individual or a closely held corporation), (ii) reason for refusal (religious or nonreligious), and (iii) who is being refused services (gay couple or interracial couple). Bars indicate 95% confidence intervals (CIs). n = 2035.

  • Fig. 2 Percent of respondents who support business service refusal by each experimental condition.

    Respondents were asked whether the business should be allowed to refuse or required to provide services to the couple in the vignette. Vignettes manipulated (i) type of business refusing services (self-employed individual or a closely held corporation), (ii) reason for refusal (religious or nonreligious), and (iii) who is being refused services (gay couple or interracial couple). Bars indicate 95% CIs. n = 2035.

  • Fig. 3 Percent of respondents who support business service refusal by views on same-sex and interracial marriage.

    Respondents were asked whether the business should be allowed to refuse or required to provide services to the couple in the vignette. Respondents were also asked about their views on same-sex marriage if they received a gay couple vignette (A) and on interracial marriage if they received an interracial couple vignette (B). Bars indicate 95% CIs. n = 2035.

  • Fig. 4 Percent of respondents who support business service refusal by whether evangelical.

    Respondents were asked whether the business should be allowed to refuse or required to provide services to the couple in the vignette. Respondents were also asked about whether (A) or not (B) they self-identify as evangelical or born again. Bars indicate 95% CIs. n = 2029.

  • Table 1 Effects of experimental manipulations and other factors on support for service refusal to same-sex couples.

    This table uses multivariate logistic regression models to examine the effects of experimental vignette manipulations and other factors on support for business service refusal (1) versus opposition (0). An interaction between the experimental manipulations is not significant and is not included. SEs are in parentheses.

    Model 1Model 2Model 3
    Experimental manipulations
      Religious reason for refusal−0.061 (0.135)0.003 (0.145)−0.033 (0.152)
      Self-employed photographer1.155*** (0.137)1.312*** (0.149)1.475*** (0.160)
    Sociodemographic factors
      Female−0.367** (0.137)−0.438** (0.147)−0.343* (0.154)
      LGB−1.275*** (0.346)−0.814* (0.363)−0.684 (0.378)
      Black−0.631* (0.261)−0.639* (0.282)−0.787** (0.297)
      Latinx−0.227 (0.212)−0.148 (0.225)−0.158 (0.237)
      Other−0.179 (0.257)−0.022 (0.273)0.033 (0.285)
      Age (in decades)0.203*** (0.047)0.171*** (0.051)0.143** (0.054)
      Some college−0.293 (0.168)−0.193 (0.179)0.077 (0.190)
      Bachelor’s degree−0.350 (0.193)−0.313 (0.208)−0.146 (0.221)
      Graduate degree−0.502* (0.219)−0.239 (0.239)0.053 (0.253)
      Married0.129 (0.152)−0.149 (0.164)−0.208 (0.173)
      Children in household0.262 (0.175)0.213 (0.187)0.182 (0.197)
      Northeast−0.591** (0.218)−0.641** (0.234)−0.745** (0.247)
      Midwest−0.550** (0.211)−0.640** (0.226)−0.647** (0.238)
      South−0.171 (0.190)−0.437* (0.206)−0.525* (0.218)
      Metropolitan status−0.514** (0.193)−0.437* (0.206)−0.264 (0.219)
    Political and religious factors
      Seven-point scale of political views, conservative higher0.327*** (0.055)0.234*** (0.058)
      Religiously affiliated, non-evangelical0.358 (0.209)0.393 (0.216)
      Religiously affiliated, evangelical1.037*** (0.256)0.805** (0.269)
      Attend religious services weekly0.684*** (0.173)0.396* (0.186)
    Marriage views
      Oppose same-sex marriage rights1.654*** (0.183)
    Constant−0.299−2.132−2.359
    n103310331033
    McFadden’s R20.1110.1980.260

    *P < 0.05.

    **P < 0.01.

    ***P < 0.001.

    Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/12/eaao5834/DC1

      Sensitivity checks and additional analyses

      table S1. Proportion who supports business service refusal by respondents’ attitudes on marriage rights for gay couples or interracial couples.

      table S2. Effects of experimental manipulations and marriage rights on support for service refusal including both same-sex and interracial couple conditions.

      table S3. Effects of experimental manipulations and other factors on support for service refusal to interracial couples.

      table S4. Effects of manipulations by political affiliation, political ideology, evangelical identity, religious affiliation, frequency of religious service attendance, and gay contact.

      table S5. Proportion who supports business service refusal by subgroups.

      table S6. Effects of experimental manipulations by race.

      table S7. Effects of experimental manipulations and other factors on an ordinal measure of strength of support for service refusal to same-sex couples.

      table S8. Sample means by experimental condition.

      table S9. Effects of experimental manipulations and other factors on support for service refusal to same-sex couples using survey weights.

      fig. S1. Support for business service refusal by vignette for weighted full sample.

      appendix S1. Vignettes.

      appendix S2. Vignette-based questions.

    • Supplementary Materials

      This PDF file includes:

      • Sensitivity checks and additional analyses
      • table S1. Proportion who supports business service refusal by respondents’ attitudes on marriage rights for gay couples or interracial couples.
      • table S2. Effects of experimental manipulations and marriage rights on support for service refusal including both same-sex and interracial couple conditions.
      • table S3. Effects of experimental manipulations and other factors on support for service refusal to interracial couples.
      • table S4. Effects of manipulations by political affiliation, political ideology, evangelical identity, religious affiliation, frequency of religious service attendance, and gay contact.
      • table S5. Proportion who supports business service refusal by subgroups.
      • table S6. Effects of experimental manipulations by race.
      • table S7. Effects of experimental manipulations and other factors on an ordinal measure of strength of support for service refusal to same-sex couples.
      • table S8. Sample means by experimental condition.
      • table S9. Effects of experimental manipulations and other factors on support for service refusal to same-sex couples using survey weights.
      • fig. S1. Support for business service refusal by vignette for weighted full sample.
      • appendix S1. Vignettes.
      • appendix S2. Vignette-based questions.

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