Research ArticlePHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

Evolutionary population history of early Paleoamerican cranial morphology

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Science Advances  22 Feb 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 2, e1602289
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1602289
  • Fig. 1 Geographic and historical relationship between populations.

    (A) Map showing the geographic position of each contemporary population and the Paleoamerican sample from Lagoa Santa (Brazil). Stars denote the waypoints used to calculate more realistic geographic distances between populations. (B) Tree topology representing the hierarchical model of historical divergence among populations. The null history model places the Paleoamericans as a sister group to their nearest geographic neighbor (Chubut, Patagonia).

  • Fig. 2 Population affinities based on craniometric data.

    2D nonmetric MDS plots of population morphological affinities based on average Procrustes distance. (A) Cranium. (B) Vault. (C) Basicranium. (D) Face. Mantel tests were used to assess the congruence between affinity patterns based on different cranial data sets. The cranium was strongly correlated with the vault (r = 0.873), face (r = 0.786), and the basicranium (r = 0.704). The vault was also relatively strongly correlated with the face (r = 0.624) and the basicranium (r = 0.609), and the face and basicranium were moderately correlated (r = 0.327). All Mantel tests were significant at the α = 0.0083 level following Bonferroni adjustment.

  • Fig. 3 Results of multiple-effects model comparisons.

    History models found to be significantly better than the null model show the position of the Paleoamerican population (black diamond) in green (α = 0.05) and red (α = 0.01), with the absolute best model in black for each of the four cranial modules.

  • Table 1 Summary statistics for null, worst, and best history models tested for each cranial region.

    Values represent the overall amount of among-group morphological distance explained (R2), with P values (α = 0.05) in parentheses.

    Worst modelNull modelBest model
    Cranium0.211 (0.841)0.251 (0.272)0.348 (<0.0001)
    Vault0.215 (0.931)0.256 (0.396)0.389 (<0.0001)
    Face0.291 (0.886)0.341 (0.298)0.438 (<0.0001)
    Basicranium0.155 (0.836)0.205 (0.279)0.265 (0.015)
  • Table 2 Human population craniometric samples used.

    Sample sizes for Paleoamericans are 18 for whole cranium, 45 for vault, 32 for basicranium, and 27 for face. NHM, Natural History Museum (London, U.K.); MH, Museé de l’Homme (Paris, France); AMNH, American Museum of Natural History (New York, NY, USA); NHMW, Das Naturhistorische Museum, Wien (Vienna, Austria); DC, Duckworth Collections (Cambridge, U.K.); SNMNH, Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History (Washington, DC, USA); MLP, Museo de La Plata (La Plata, Argentina); ZMD, Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen (Copenhagen, Denmark); RIO, Federal University of Rio National Museum (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil); BH, Museu de História Natural, Federal University of Minas Gerais (Belo Horizonte, Brazil); USP, University of São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil).

    PopulationnLatitude, longitudeMuseum
    San31−21.0, 20.0NHM, MH, AMNH, NHMW, DC
    Biaka214.0, 17.0NHM, MH
    Ibo307.5, 5.0NHM
    Zulu30−28.0, 31.0NHM
    Berber3032.0, 3.0MH
    Italian3046.0, 10.0NHMW
    Basque3043.0, 0.0MH
    Russian3061.0, 40.0NHMW
    Australian30−22.0, 126.0DC
    Andaman2812.4, 92.8NHM
    Mongolian3045.0, 111.0MH
    Chinese3032.5, 114.0NHMW
    Japanese3038.0, 138.0MH
    Alaskan3069.0, −158.0AMNH
    Greenland3070.5, −53.0SNMNH
    Hawikuh3033.5, −109.0SNMNH
    Chubut30−43.7, −68.7MLP
    Paleoamerican−19.4, −44.0ZMD, RIO, BH, USP

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • table S1. Detailed results of the multiple-effects model ordered according to best-fit model (lowest residual unexplained variance).
    • table S2. Anatomical definitions of all 135 landmarks digitized.

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