Research ArticlesCLIMATOLOGY

Extreme warmth and heat-stressed plankton in the tropics during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

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Science Advances  03 Mar 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 3, e1600891
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1600891
  • Fig. 1 Temperature and environment for the SQ (A) and IB10B core (B to E).

    (A) SQ surface and bottom-water temperature reconstructions based on Mg/Ca (triangles), δ18O (circles) of selected foraminifer species, and Embedded Image (squares). Error bars represent analytical errors. Conservative 1σ calibration errors: 1.6°C for δ18O; 1.7° and 2°C for planktonic and benthic Mg/Ca, respectively; and 2.5°C for Embedded Image. (B) IB10B stable carbon isotope record of TOC (δ13CTOC) and palynological residue (δ13Cpaly). The phases of the CIE are denoted by O, B, and R for onset, body, and recovery, respectively. PFZ, planktonic foraminifer zone. (C) Embedded Image-based SST (error bars based on replicate measurements). (D) Absolute concentrations of dinocysts per gram of dry sediment. Note the scale break between 4,000 and 10,000. (E) Indicators of anoxia: Organic carbon over total phosphorus ratio (Corg/Ptot) (blue squares). Presence of isorenieratene and its derivative. Concentrations of redox-sensitive trace elements Mo (light green circles) and Cd (dark green triangles) in parts per million (ppm). Note that Mo concentrations are close to the detection limit, and absolute values should be treated with caution.

  • Fig. 2 Model-data comparison for latest Paleocene (2240 ppm) and PETM (4480 ppm) CO2 scenarios.

    (A) Vertical temperature profile for the site locations. Solid and dashed lines represent latest Paleocene and PETM model estimates, respectively. Data from Fig. 1 (A and C) for comparison, including error bars for depth: Morozovella (0 to 30 m), Acarinina (0 to 50 m), Embedded Image (0 m; surface), and benthic (100 to 150 m). (B) Modeled latest Paleocene temperature along an inshore-offshore transect representing the study site. (C) Modeled warming from latest Paleocene to PETM along the same transect. (D) Embedded Image-derived (orange), δ18O-derived (blue), and Mg/Ca-derived (red) SSTs and modeled Paleocene meridional SST gradient (solid line). Gray dots represent point-by-point model-data comparisons. (E) Interpolated absolute SST reconstructions. (F) Modeled latest Paleocene (2240 ppm) temperatures. (G) PETM absolute SST changes and Embedded Image-derived (orange), δ18O-derived (blue), and Mg/Ca-derived (red) SST changes between the latest Paleocene and the PETM. Gray dots represent point-by-point model-data comparisons. (H) Interpolated change in absolute SST. (I) Modeled SST change from the latest Paleocene to the PETM (2240 to 4480 ppm). (J) PETM SST changes, normalized to tropical (20°N to 20°S) SST changes (2.7°C) from the data and Embedded Image-derived (orange), δ18O-derived (blue), and Mg/Ca-derived (red) SST changes between the latest Paleocene and the PETM. Gray dots represent point-by-point model-data comparisons. (K) SST changes from the latest Paleocene to the PETM from the data, normalized to tropical SST changes in the data (2.7°C). (L) SST changes from the latest Paleocene to the PETM, normalized to tropical SST changes in CESM1 (2.4°C). Black circles indicate site locations.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/3/e1600891/DC1

    Supplementary Text

    fig. S1. Geological map of the Nigerian sector of the Dahomey Basin.

    fig. S2. Wall profiles for analyzed foraminifer species from the SQ.

    fig. S3. Environmental reconstructions for the IB10B core.

    fig. S4. IB10A and IB10B TEX86 and BIT correlations.

    fig. S5. Bayesian TEX86 calibrations using the IB10B data set and BAYSPAR tool (https://figshare.com/articles/BAYSPAR_Matlab_Prediction_Code/1352033) (46, 69).

    fig. S6. IB10B chemostratigraphy and stratigraphical ranges of selected foraminifera and dinocysts.

    fig. S7. IB10A chemostratigraphy and stratigraphical ranges of selected foraminifera and dinocysts.

    fig. S8. Sensitivity plots for δ18Ow and Mg/Casw.

    table S1. Dinocyst assemblages for the Sagamu Quarry.

    table S2. Sea surface temperature (SST) data used in Figure 2D, E, G, H.

    References (53100)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Text
    • fig. S1. Geological map of the Nigerian sector of the Dahomey Basin.
    • fig. S2. Wall profiles for analyzed foraminifer species from the SQ.
    • fig. S3. IB10A and IB10B TEX86 and BIT correlations.
    • fig. S4. Environmental reconstructions for the IB10B core.
    • fig. S5. Bayesian TEX86 calibrations using the IB10B data set and BAYSPAR tool (http://bayspar.geo.arizona.edu/) (46, 69).
    • fig. S6. IB10B chemostratigraphy and stratigraphical ranges of selected foraminifera and dinocysts.
    • fig. S7. IB10A chemostratigraphy and stratigraphical ranges of selected foraminifera and dinocysts.
    • fig. S8. Sensitivity plots for δ18Ow and Mg/Casw.
    • table S1. Dinocyst assemblages for the Sagamu Quarry.
    • table S2. Sea surface temperature (SST) data used in Figure 2D, E, G, H.
    • References (53–100)

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