Research ArticleEVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY

Kin selection promotes female productivity and cooperation between the sexes

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Science Advances  15 Mar 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 3, e1602262
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1602262
  • Fig. 1 The effect of nine generations of evolution under kin selection on female fecundity.

    After mating in groups of unrelated individual (males and females coming from the same experimental line), females from kin selection lines laid more eggs (t174 = 3.34, P = 0.001; see Supplementary Materials for details). Mean of the z-transformed number of eggs is shown and the box represents ±1 SD and the whiskers represent minimum and maximum. C, control lines; KS, kin selection lines.

  • Fig. 2 The effect of male evolutionary history on female fecundity.

    Females from the stock population were more fecund after being paired for 5 days with males from kin selection lines compared to males from control lines (t174 = 2.05, P = 0.041; see Supplementary Materials for details). Mean of the z-transformed number of eggs is shown and the box represents ±1 SD and the whiskers represent minimum and maximum.

  • Fig. 3 Fecundity of kin-selected and control females when paired with stock population males.

    Females from kin selection lines were more fecund compared to females from control lines after being paired for 5 days with males from the stock population (t176 = 4.54, P < 0.001; see Supplementary Materials for details). Mean of the z-transformed number of eggs is shown and the box represents ±1 SD and the whiskers represent minimum and maximum.

  • Fig. 4 Schematic representation of experimental evolution protocol for kin selection and control lines.

    Reproductive competition took place during a 5-day interaction between full sibs (kin selection) or unrelated individuals (control). After the interaction period, inseminated females were pooled and allowed to lay eggs, and larvae produced in the resulting global populations were selected randomly to start the next generation. Experimental evolution generations, in which kin selection and control treatments were implemented, were interspaced with relaxed selection monogamy generations, which served to obtain full-sib families and prevented inbreeding in kin selection lines. There were three independent replicates for both kin selection and control lines. See Materials and Methods for more details.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • table S1. Model selection results.
    • table S2. Optimal general linear models.
    • table S3. Results of full general linear mixed models.

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