Research ArticleBEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY

Mandrills use olfaction to socially avoid parasitized conspecifics

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Science Advances  07 Apr 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 4, e1601721
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1601721
  • Fig. 1 Effect of antiparasitic treatment on the frequency of grooming received.

    Frequencies of grooming received were retrieved from a 6-week period extending from 3 weeks before treatment to 3 weeks after treatment. Each line represents one of the 16 deparasitized cases. Dotted gray lines with empty symbols represent individuals that received less grooming after than before treatment (n = 4). Solid blue lines with filled symbols represent individuals that received more grooming after than before treatment (n = 12). Of these 12 cases, the thick blue lines represent three individuals that received 10 times more grooming than represented in the figure (frequencies were divided by 10 to fit to the figure).

  • Fig. 2 Chemical similarity (mean ± SEM) between pairs of fecal samples with same or different protozoan statuses, for three protozoan taxa.

    Gray bars represent the average chemical similarity across pairs of nonparasitized fecal samples (E. coli, n = 435; E. histolytica/dispar, n = 325; and B. coli, n = 105), blue bars represent pairs of two parasitized fecal samples (E. coli, n = 528; E. histolytica/dispar, n = 406; and B. coli, n = 946), and hatched bars represent pairs of fecal sample with different protozoan statuses (E. coli, n = 858; E. histolytica/dispar, n = 870; and B. coli, n = 660). Significant differences are indicated for two-by-two comparisons (Kruskal-Wallis test, ***P < 0.001 for all instances).

  • Fig. 3 Differences in time spent in proximity (<1 m) to non- or sparsely-parasitized samples versus highly-parasitized samples.

    n = 30 behavioral tests. Each bar represents the time difference (in minutes) recorded during one test. Blue bars, subjects spent more time in proximity to the highly-parasitized fecal sample than to the non- or sparsely-parasitized fecal sample (n = 9); gray bars, subjects spent more time in proximity to the non- or sparsely-parasitized fecal sample than to the highly-parasitized fecal sample (n = 19). For two tests, subjects spent equal time near the two fecal samples.

  • Table 1 Effects of predictors on the index of (A) grooming received and (B) grooming given and on (C) the proportion of grooming events, including the perianal area.

    For each predictor, we calculated the sum of Akaike weights of the models, including the predictor (importance) and compared it to the expected value under the assumption that all tested models have equal Akaike weights (expected ratio) to show the plausibility of each predictor. Plausible predictors (in bold) are those with an importance greater than the expected ratio. The estimate coefficient associated to each predictor variable and its SEM are reported. Dominance in interaction with sex is not shown in the tables because this interaction was never included in the set of best models.

    PredictorsImportanceExpected ratioEstimateSEM
    A
      Age0.990.50.050.01
      Protozoan richness0.60.5−0.100.06
      Sex0.530.33
        Female0.020.27
        Male0.320.27
    B
      Sex0.980.33
        Female0.770.13
        Male0.020.12
      Age0.30.50.010.01
      Protozoan richness0.250.50.010.04
    C
      Protozoan richness0.860.5−0.840.37
      Age0.450.50.150.11
      Sex0.170.5
        Female1.312.13
        Male0.812.33

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/4/e1601721/DC1

    Supplementary Results

    table S1. Results of coprological analyses performed on skin smears, according to the individual’s protozoan status.

    table S2. Effects of each protozoan taxon on the index of grooming received.

    table S3. Effects of different predictors on (A) daily degree and (B) daily number of contacts.

    table S4. Effects of different predictors on the chemical similarity between pairs of fecal samples.

    table S5. Major volatile compounds (n = 75) found in the analyzed fecal samples and their chemical family.

    fig. S1. Effect of the capture (without medical treatment) on the frequency of grooming received.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Results
    • table S1. Results of coprological analyses performed on skin smears, according to the individual’s protozoan status.
    • table S2. Effects of each protozoan taxon on the index of grooming received.
    • table S3. Effects of different predictors on (A) daily degree and (B) daily number of contacts.
    • table S4. Effects of different predictors on the chemical similarity between pairs of fecal samples.
    • table S5. Major volatile compounds (n = 75) found in the analyzed fecal samples and their chemical family.
    • fig. S1. Effect of the capture (without medical treatment) on the frequency of grooming received.

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