Research ArticleSOCIAL SCIENCES

Does basic energy access generate socioeconomic benefits? A field experiment with off-grid solar power in India

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Science Advances  17 May 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 5, e1602153
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1602153
  • Table 1 Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household electrification and hours of electricity.

    Results are shown for household electrification (A) and hours of electricity per day (B). The SEs are clustered by habitation and are given in parentheses. The dependent variable in (A) is a dichotomous variable that takes a value of 1 if the household reports having electricity and 0 otherwise. The dependent variable in (B) is the number of hours of electricity available per day. n = 3825; number of households, 1281. *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01. FE, fixed effects.

    ITT (OLS)LATE (IV)
    (1)(2)(3)(4)
    (A) Access to electricity
    Treatment0.10**(0.04)0.08* (0.04)0.36** (0.14)0.29** (0.14)
    Household FEYesYes
    Wave FEYesYesYesYes
    Pretreatment mean for control group = 0.01
    First-stage estimate0.290.29
    First-stage F statistic10.1510.01
    (B) Hours of electricity
    Treatment0.42 (0.26)0.29 (0.27)1.42 (0.91)0.99 (0.92)
    Household FEYesYes
    Wave FEYesYesYesYes
    Pretreatment mean for control group = 0.12
    First-stage estimate0.290.29
    First-stage F statistic10.1310
  • Table 2 Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household kerosene spending.

    Effects are shown for spending in the private market (A), the PDS (B), and overall (C). The SEs are clustered by habitation and are shown in parentheses. All dependent variables are measured in rupees per month. n = 3825; number of households, 1281. *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01.

    ITT (OLS)LATE (IV)
    (1)(2)(3)(4)
    (A) Kerosene spending on private market
    Treatment−14.01*** (5.28)−14.49** (6.91)−47.49** (19.83)−49.36** (24.62)
    Household FEYesYes
    Wave FEYesYesYesYes
    Pretreatment mean for control group = 72
    First-stage estimate0.290.29
    First-stage F statistic10.1510.01
    (B) Kerosene spending on PDS
    Treatment3.37 (2.71)1.23 (2.62)11.41 (9.81)4.18 (8.79)
    Household FEYesYes
    Wave FEYesYesYesYes
    Pretreatment mean for control group = 35
    First-stage
    estimate
    0.290.29
    First-stage F
    statistic
    10.1510.01
    (C) Total kerosene spending
    Treatment−10.64**
    (4.56)
    −13.26**
    (6.01)
    −36.08**
    (15.93)
    −45.18**
    (22.21)
    Household FEYesYes
    Wave FEYesYesYesYes
    Pretreatment mean for control group = 107
    First-stage
    estimate
    0.290.29
    First-stage F
    statistic
    10.1510.01
  • Table 3 Socioeconomic effects of MGP solar microgrids.

    The SEs are clustered by habitation and are shown in parentheses. “Savings” indicate household savings, measured in rupees per month. “Expenses” are household expenditures, measured in rupees per month. “Business” is a dichotomous indicator that takes a value of 1 if the household head owns a business. “Work time” is the time women spent working per day in hours. “Study” is a dichotomous variable that takes a value of 1 if the respondent or the children use lighting to study. “Phone charging” is the amount spent on phone charging, measured in rupees per week.

    SavingsExpensesBusinessWork timeStudyPhone charging
    (1)
    ITT
    (2)
    LATE
    (3)
    ITT
    (4)
    LATE
    (5)
    ITT
    (6)
    LATE
    (7)
    ITT
    (8)
    LATE
    (9)
    ITT
    (10)
    LATE
    (11)
    ITT
    (12)
    LATE
    Treatment65.82
    (88.96)
    224.17
    (316.67)
    192.81
    (174.24)
    656.69
    (638.43)
    −0.01
    (0.02)
    −0.03
    (0.06)
    −0.05
    (0.21)
    −0.18
    (0.71)
    −0.01
    (0.03)
    −0.02
    (0.10)
    0.66
    (1.11)
    2.55
    (4.34)
    Household FEYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
    Wave FEYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
    Pretreatment mean
    for control group
    91244550.064.070.618.84
    First-stage estimate0.290.290.290.30.290.26
    First-stage F statistic10.0110.0110.0110.6510.017.66
    Observations382538253825382538253825352935293825382525322532
    Number of
    households
    128112811281128112811281126312631281128111031103

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/5/e1602153/DC1

    section S1. A comprehensive literature review of the effects of electricity access

    section S2. Summary statistics

    section S3. Study setting

    section S4. Site selection and external validity

    section S5. Preanalysis plan

    section S6. Additional estimates based on the preanalysis plan

    section S7. Balance statistics

    section S8. Additional descriptive data

    section S9. Different LATE

    section S10. Testing for geographic spillovers

    section S11. Additional regression output for energy access effects

    section S12. Multiple comparisons

    section S13. Placebo tests from randomization inference

    section S14. Additional regression output for socioeconomic effects

    section S15. Socioeconomic effects: Full results

    section S16. MGP

    section S17. Robustness: Energy access effects without flooded villages

    section S18. Robustness: Energy access effects without contaminated villages

    section S19. Robustness: Energy access effects without suspicious case

    section S20. Robustness: Energy access effects without treatment from wait list

    section S21. Robustness: Energy access effects without households with 24 hours of electricity

    table S1. Summary statistics for outcome and other key variables across all three survey waves.

    table S2. Summary statistics for outcome and other key variables, separate for treatment, control, and remote control group and by wave.

    table S3. Mean values of different variables at the village level across different samples, all on a scale of 0 to 1 of population shares.

    table S4. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on gender schooling equality.

    table S5. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on gender job equality.

    table S6. Balance statistics at habitation level (pretreatment).

    table S7. Balance statistics at household level (pretreatment).

    table S8. Primary lighting sources by survey wave.

    table S9. Primary lighting sources by survey wave and treatment status.

    table S10. Number of households by subgroup and wave.

    table S11. Reasons for discontinuation of MGP services.

    table S12. Effect of MGP solar microgrids with a different LATE (see text) on household spending on kerosene in the private market and on kerosene through the PDS.

    table S13. Effect of MGP solar microgrids with a different LATE (see text) on household electrification and hours of electricity per day.

    table S14. Effect of MGP solar microgrids with a different LATE (see text) on household electrification and hours of electricity per day.

    table S15. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household kerosene spending including remote control habitations.

    table S16. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household electrification and hours of electricity including remote control habitations.

    table S17. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household spending on kerosene by wave, separate for private, public, and total kerosene expenditures.

    table S18. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household lighting satisfaction and hours of lighting.

    table S19. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on the use of kerosene as the main source of lighting (=1 if the household uses kerosene for lighting).

    table S20. Benjamini and Hochberg (27) corrections of p values for the energy access family of outcomes.

    table S21. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on socioeconomic outcomes by wave.

    table S22. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on socioeconomic outcomes by wave.

    table S23. Socioeconomic effects of MGP solar microgrids on household savings in rupees per month.

    table S24. Socioeconomic effects of MGP solar microgrids on household expenditures in rupees per month.

    table S25. Socioeconomic effects of MGP solar microgrids on household business ownership, measured as a dichotomous indicator that takes a value of 1 if the household head owns a business.

    table S26. Socioeconomic effects of MGP solar microgrids on the amount of work hours per day (female module).

    table S27. Socioeconomic effects of MGP solar microgrids on household use of lighting for studying, measured as a dichotomous indicator that takes a value of 1 if the respondent or the children use lighting to study at night.

    table S28. Socioeconomic effects of MGP solar microgrids on household expenditures to charge mobile phones, measured in rupees per week.

    table S29. Socioeconomic effects of MGP solar microgrids on household expenditures to charge mobile phones, measured in rupees per week, controlling for electrification status of the household.

    table S30. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on prevalence of domestic violence against women in the habitation (female module).

    table S31. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on prevalence of eve-teasing of women in the habitation (female module).

    table S32. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on perceived safety in habitation because of better lighting (female module).

    table S33. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on belief there is enough light to go outside in habitation (female module).

    table S34. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on women’s time spent cooking per day (female module).

    table S35. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household kerosene spending, without flooded villages.

    table S36. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household electrification and hours of electricity, without flooded villages.

    table S37. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household kerosene spending, without contaminated villages.

    table S38. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household electrification and hours of electricity, without contaminated villages.

    table S39. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household kerosene spending, without suspicious household.

    table S40. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household electrification and hours of electricity, without suspicious household.

    table S41. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household kerosene spending, without treatment habitations from wait list.

    table S42. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household electrification and hours of electricity, without treatment habitations from the wait list.

    table S43. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household kerosene spending, without households with 24 hours of electricity per day.

    table S44. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household electrification and hours of electricity, without households with 24 hours of electricity per day.

    fig. S1. Locations of study habitations in the Barabanki district.

    fig. S2. Spending on kerosene on the private (black) market in the pretreatment period (baseline survey).

    fig. S3. Spending on kerosene through the PDS in the pretreatment period (baseline survey).

    fig. S4. Hours of electricity per day in the pretreatment period (baseline survey).

    fig. S5. Placebo estimates for electricity access, private kerosene expenses, and total kerosene expenses.

    References (2938)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • section S1. A comprehensive literature review of the effects of electricity access
    • section S2. Summary statistics
    • section S3. Study setting
    • section S4. Site selection and external validity
    • section S5. Preanalysis plan
    • section S6. Additional estimates based on the preanalysis plan
    • section S7. Balance statistics
    • section S8. Additional descriptive data
    • section S9. Different LATE
    • section S10. Testing for geographic spillovers
    • section S11. Additional regression output for energy access effects
    • section S12. Multiple comparisons
    • section S13. Placebo tests from randomization inference
    • section S14. Additional regression output for socioeconomic effects
    • section S15. Socioeconomic effects: Full results
    • section S16. MGP
    • section S17. Robustness: Energy access effects without flooded villages
    • section S18. Robustness: Energy access effects without contaminated villages
    • section S19. Robustness: Energy access effects without suspicious case
    • section S20. Robustness: Energy access effects without treatment from wait list
    • section S21. Robustness: Energy access effects without households with 24 hours of electricity
    • table S1. Summary statistics for outcome and other key variables across all three survey waves.
    • table S2. Summary statistics for outcome and other key variables, separate for treatment, control, and remote control group and by wave.
    • table S3. Mean values of different variables at the village level across different samples, all on a scale of 0 to 1 of population shares.
    • table S4. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on gender schooling equality.
    • table S5. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on gender job equality.
    • table S6. Balance statistics at habitation level (pretreatment).
    • table S7. Balance statistics at household level (pretreatment).
    • table S8. Primary lighting sources by survey wave.
    • table S9. Primary lighting sources by survey wave and treatment status.
    • table S10. Number of households by subgroup and wave.
    • table S11. Reasons for discontinuation of MGP services.
    • table S12. Effect of MGP solar microgrids with a different LATE (see text) on household spending on kerosene in the private market and on kerosene through the PDS.
    • table S13. Effect of MGP solar microgrids with a different LATE (see text) on household electrification and hours of electricity per day.
    • table S14. Effect of MGP solar microgrids with a different LATE (see text) on household electrification and hours of electricity per day.
    • table S15. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household kerosene spending including remote control habitations.
    • table S16. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household electrification and hours of electricity including remote control habitations.
    • table S17. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household spending on kerosene by wave, separate for private, public, and total kerosene expenditures.
    • table S18. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household lighting satisfaction and hours of lighting.
    • table S19. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on the use of kerosene as the main source of lighting (=1 if the household uses kerosene for lighting).
    • table S20. Benjamini and Hochberg (27) corrections of P values for the energy access family of outcomes.
    • table S21. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on socioeconomic outcomes by wave.
    • table S22. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on socioeconomic outcomes by wave.
    • table S23. Socioeconomic effects of MGP solar microgrids on household savings in rupees per month.
    • table S24. Socioeconomic effects of MGP solar microgrids on household expenditures in rupees per month.
    • table S25. Socioeconomic effects of MGP solar microgrids on household business ownership, measured as a dichotomous indicator that takes a value of 1 if the household head owns a business.
    • table S26. Socioeconomic effects of MGP solar microgrids on the amount of work hours per day (female module).
    • table S27. Socioeconomic effects of MGP solar microgrids on household use of lighting for studying, measured as a dichotomous indicator that takes a value of 1 if the respondent or the children use lighting to study at night.
    • table S28. Socioeconomic effects of MGP solar microgrids on household expenditures to charge mobile phones, measured in rupees per week.
    • table S29. Socioeconomic effects of MGP solar microgrids on household expenditures to charge mobile phones, measured in rupees per week, controlling for electrification status of the household.
    • table S30. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on prevalence of domestic violence against women in the habitation (female module).
    • table S31. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on prevalence of eve teasing of women in the habitation (female module).
    • table S32. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on perceived safety in habitation because of better lighting (female module).
    • table S33. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on belief there is enough light to go outside in habitation (female module).
    • table S34. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on women’s time spent cooking per day (female module).
    • table S35. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household kerosene spending, without flooded villages.
    • table S36. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household electrification and hours of electricity, without flooded villages.
    • table S37. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household kerosene spending, without contaminated villages.
    • table S38. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household electrification and hours of electricity, without contaminated villages.
    • table S39. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household kerosene spending, without suspicious household.
    • table S40. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household electrification and hours of electricity, without suspicious household.
    • table S41. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household kerosene spending, without treatment habitations from wait list.
    • table S42. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household electrification and hours of electricity, without treatment habitations from the wait list.
    • table S43. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household kerosene spending, without households with 24 hours of electricity per day.
    • table S44. Effect of MGP solar microgrids on household electrification and hours of electricity, without households with 24 hours of electricity per day.
    • fig. S1. Locations of study habitations in the Barabanki district.
    • fig. S2. Spending on kerosene on the private (black) market in the pretreatment period (baseline survey).
    • fig. S3. Spending on kerosene through the PDS in the pretreatment period (baseline survey).
    • fig. S4. Hours of electricity per day in the pretreatment period (baseline survey).
    • fig. S5. Placebo estimates for electricity access, private kerosene expenses, and total kerosene expenses.
    • References (29–38)

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