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The goal of breast-conserving surgery is to completely remove all of the cancer. Currently, no intraoperative tools can microscopically analyze the entire lumpectomy specimen, which results in 20 to 60% of patients undergoing second surgeries to achieve clear margins. To address this critical need, we have laid the foundation for the development of a device that could allow accurate intraoperative margin assessment. We demonstrate that by taking advantage of the intrinsic optical contrast of breast tissue, photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) can achieve multilayered histology-like imaging of the tissue surface. The high correlation of the PAM images to the conventional histologic images allows rapid computations of diagnostic features such as nuclear size and packing density, potentially identifying small clusters of cancer cells. Because PAM does not require tissue processing or staining, it can be performed promptly and intraoperatively, enabling immediate directed re-excision and reducing the number of second surgeries.
- unprocessed tissue
- human breast cancer
- photoacoustic imaging
- margin analysis
- Copyright © 2017, The Authors
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