Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

A pressure-induced topological phase with large Berry curvature in Pb1−xSnxTe

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Science Advances  31 May 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 5, e1602510
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1602510

Abstract

The picture of how a gap closes in a semiconductor has been radically transformed by topological concepts. Instead of the gap closing and immediately reopening, topological arguments predict that, in the absence of inversion symmetry, a metallic phase protected by Weyl nodes persists over a finite interval of the tuning parameter (for example, pressure P). The gap reappears when the Weyl nodes mutually annihilate. We report evidence that Pb1−xSnxTe exhibits this topological metallic phase. Using pressure to tune the gap, we have tracked the nucleation of a Fermi surface droplet that rapidly grows in volume with P. In the metallic state, we observe a large Berry curvature, which dominates the Hall effect. Moreover, a giant negative magnetoresistance is observed in the insulating side of phase boundaries, in accord with ab initio calculations. The results confirm the existence of a topological metallic phase over a finite pressure interval.

Keywords
  • Topological phases of matter
  • Berry curvature
  • anomalous Hall effect
  • PbSnTe
  • Gap tuning by pressure
  • Weyl fermions
  • giant magnetoresistance

INTRODUCTION

Topological concepts have greatly clarified the role of symmetry in protecting electronic states in a host of materials. In bulk semiconductors, topological insights have revised the picture of how the energy gap closes (say, under pressure P). In the old picture, the gap Δ closes at an “accidental” value of P before reopening at higher P. The new view (14) predicts instead that, when inversion symmetry is broken, a gapless metallic state featuring pairs of Weyl nodes persists over a field interval (P1P2). They act as sources and sinks of Berry curvature (an effective magnetic field in k space). The metallic phase is protected because the nodes come in pairs with opposite chiralities (χ = ±1). Hence, they cannot be removed except by mutual annihilation (which eventually occurs at the higher pressure P2). To date, these predictions have not been tested.

Here, we show that Pb1−xSnxTe exhibits a pressure-induced metallic phase described by the Weyl scenario. The Pb-based rock salts (57) have been identified as topological crystalline insulators with surface states protected by mirror symmetry (812). We focus on their Dirac-like bulk states (13, 14), which occur at the L points of the Brillouin zone (BZ) surface. Pb1−xSnxTe exhibits an insulator-to-metal (IM) transition at P ~ 10 kbar (7). However, the IM transition is little explored. We report that the metallic state appears by nucleating 12 small Fermi surface (FS) nodes. The breaking of time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in applied B leads to a large Berry curvature Ω. Finally, we also observe an anomalously large negative magnetoresistance (MR), which is anticipated in the Weyl scenario.

RESULTS

Phase diagram under pressure

Crystals of Pb1−xSnxTe were grown by the vertical Bridgman technique (see Materials and Methods). Transport measurements at temperatures T down to 2 K were carried out in a Be-Cu pressure cell (with a maximum pressure of Pmax ~ 28 kbar) on four samples with Sn contents x = 0.5 (samples A1 and A2), 0.32 (Q1), and 0.25 (E1) (Table 1). In A1 and A2, indium (6%) was added to tune the chemical potential (see Materials and Methods).

Table 1 Parameters of samples of Pb1−xSnxTe investigated.

Columns 2, 3, 4, and 5 report the Sn content x, the mobility μ, the Hall carrier density nH, and the conductivity σ (at B = 0), respectively. The minus sign in nH (sample Q1) indicates n-type carriers. All quantities in the table were measured at 5 K at the pressure P given in the last column. Samples A1 and A2 are slightly doped with In to tune the chemical potential [composition (Pb0.5Sn0.5)1−yInyTe, with the In content y = 0.06].

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Figure 1 provides an overview of the IM transitions in samples A2 and E1. As P increases from 0 kbar (ambient pressure) to 25.4 kbar, the resistivity profile ρ versus T changes from insulating to metallic behavior in A2 (Fig. 1A). Close examination reveals a kink in ρ, indicating a sharp transition at Tc = 62 to 70 K (arrows in inset). Figure 1B shows the rapid increase in the zero-B conductivity σ ≡ 1/ρ at 5 K as P exceeds the critical value P1 ~ 15 kbar at the IM transition. The resistivity curves in sample E1 (x = 0.25) are broadly similar except that ρ at ambient P attains much higher values at 5 K (3 × 104 Ω cm). As P increases from ambient to P1 (12 kbar), an IM transition occurs to a metallic state (with ρ decreasing by over seven decades at 5 K). In samples E1 and Q1 (which have smaller Sn content than A1 and A2), the second critical pressure P2 = 25 kbar is accessible in our experiment. The profile of σ versus P at 5 K (Fig. 1D) shows the metallic phase sandwiched between the two insulating phases.

Fig. 1 The phase diagram of Pb1xSnxTe inferred from the resistivity ρ versus temperature T and pressure P.

(A) Curves of ρ versus T in sample A2 (x = 0.5) in zero B measured at selected P. At 5 K, ρ decreases by four orders of magnitude as P→25.4 kbar (the IM transition). The inset shows the kinks (arrows) in ρ (between 62 and 70 K), which signal a transition to a state with broken inversion symmetry. (B) Steep increase of the conductivity σ = 1/ρ at 5 K in the metallic phase (shaded in blue; P > P1). (C) ρ versus T at selected P in sample E1 (x = 0.25). The insulating state is recovered at P2 ~ 25 kbar. The inset plots the dielectric response ε1 measured versus applied electric field E at 2 K and ambient P (a spontaneous value ε1 ~ 5 × 104 is measured as E→0). (D) σ versus P at 5 K to display the metallic state in E1 (shaded in blue) sandwiched between P1 and P2. (E and F) Calculated Weyl node trajectories (Supplementary Materials), magnified 10× relative to the BZ scale (with B = 0). In (E), the vector d || [111] (arrow) is the assumed FE displacement. (F) Top view (sighting || d). Under pressure, the 12 Weyl nodes at L1, L2, and L3 trace out elliptical orbits until they annihilate at the black points. The Weyl nodes at L0 trace an orbit that undulates about a circular path [over a restricted pressure interval (Supplementary Materials)].

The end member SnTe is known to be ferroelectric (FE) (15), but the existence of FE distortion is less obvious for finite Pb content. To establish inversion symmetry breaking, we performed dielectric measurements (see Materials and Methods) on sample E1, which has a very large ρ below 10 K (>103 Ω cm). By varying the E-field (12→100 V/cm), we show that a large spontaneous dielectric response ε1 ~ 5 × 104 exists in the limit E→0 (Fig. 1C, inset). The spontaneous polarization Ps provides direct evidence that the insulating state below P1 in E1 is FE. Although dielectric measurements cannot be performed in A2 (carrier screening is too strong), the kink in ρ (arrow) implies that Ps appears at 62 to 70 K.

In parallel, we performed ab initio calculations (see details in the Supplementary Materials), in which the lattice parameter a is varied to simulate pressure. To break inversion symmetry, we assumed a weak FE displacement d || [111]. The calculations reveal that, above P1, two pairs of Weyl nodes appear near each of the points L1, L2, and L3 (these are equivalent in zero B; see Fig. 1, E and F). As P increases, the 12 nodes trace out elliptical orbits (shown expanded by a factor of 10 relative to the BZ caliper) and eventually annihilate pairwise (indicated by black dots), consistent with the scenario described by Murakami (2) and Murakami and Kuga (3). The red and blue arcs refer to nodes with χ = 1 and −1, respectively. The splitting of the node at L0 occurs in a much narrower pressure interval.

Quantum oscillations

The samples’ high mobilities μ (20,000 to 4 × 106 cm2/Vs; see Table 1) allow us to “count” the number of FS pockets by monitoring the Shubnikov–de Haas (SdH) oscillations. As shown in Fig. 1 (B and D), σ increases steeply with the reduced pressure ΔP = PP1. Figure 2A shows the resistivity ρxx measured in sample A2 in a transverse magnetic field B (|| Embedded Image) at selected values of P. From the linear variation of 1/Bn versus the integers n (where Bn is the peak field in ρxx; see Fig. 2B), we find that the FS caliper area SF increases from 1.6 to 2.7 T between 19 and 25.4 kbar. The most prominent peak in Fig. 2A corresponds to the n = 1 Landau level (LL). The SdH-derived Fermi wave vector kF corresponds to a hole density Embedded Image per spin (assuming a spherical FS).

Fig. 2 The nucleation of small FS pockets above P1 observed by SdH oscillations.

(A) Resistivity ρxx versus a transverse B measured at 5 K and with P fixed at values 18.3 to 25.4 kbar (sample A2). At each P, the oscillations below 3 T correspond to SdH oscillations (the largest peak corresponds to the n = 1 LL). (B) Inverse peak fields 1/Bn of ρxx versus the integers n. The slopes yield small extremal FS cross sections SF (1.6 to 2.7 T), which increase with ΔP = P − P1. The inset shows that the ratio nH/pSdH equals 12 ± 1, independent of P (see text). (C) Hall resistivity (divided by Be) ρyx/Be versus B. At low B (where SdH oscillations occur), the flat profile allows ρyx/Be to be identified with the total hole density nH. The strong increase in ρyx/Be above 3 T reflects the Berry curvature term (Fig. 3). (D) Top-down view (along [¯1¯1¯1]) of the L1 hexagon face in zero B. At P1, two Dirac nodes nucleate around L1 because of inversion-symmetry breaking. With increasing P, the four Weyl FS near L1 move apart and expand in volume [chirality χ = 1 (red) and −1 (gray)].

The sharp increase in hole density is also evident in the Hall resistivity ρyx (which is B-linear in weak B). To highlight its behavior, we plot the ratio ρyx/Be versus B (Fig. 2C). In weak B (for example, |B| < 3.5 T in the top curve), the ratio is B-independent, which allows the ratio to be identified with the Hall density nH (the abrupt increase above 3 T arises from the interesting anomalous Hall term discussed below). From nH, we derive μ ~ 1.8 × 104 and 2.86 × 104 cm2/Vs in A1 and A2, respectively, at 25 kbar.

Crucially, we find that nH always exceeds pSdH by an order of magnitude. This implies a large number NF of identical pockets. The ratio nH/pSdH = NF equals 12 ± 1 over the whole pressure interval (Fig. 2B, inset). Because a smaller NF (for example, 4, 6, or 8) can be excluded, the results strongly support the choice d || [111], which leads to three equivalent L points.

Anomalous Hall effect

We next describe the evidence for a topological metallic phase. The Hall resistivity ρyx displays a highly unusual field profile. As B increases, the initial B-linear behavior abruptly changes, bending over to a nominally flat profile (Fig. 3A). At first glance, this recalls the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in a ferromagnet (16) where the intrinsic AHE arises from a large Berry curvature rendered finite by the spontaneous breaking of TRS, but there is a subtle difference. In PbSnTe, TRS remains unbroken under P, so the AHE should be absent in the Weyl phase if B = 0 (Ω cancels pairwise between Weyl nodes with χ = ±1). However, when TRS is broken in field B, the cancellation is spoiled by the Zeeman energy (see below). The field Ω leads to a large AHE signal. We remark that, in weak B (with Ω negligible), the initial slope of ρyx is dominated by the ordinary Hall effect, as evidenced by the linearity of nH versus pSdH in Fig. 2B [by contrast, in a ferromagnet, the AHE term is dominant even in weak B, so the weak-B ρyx and nH are unrelated (16)].

Fig. 3 The Berry curvature term in the Hall response.

(A) Observed curves of ρyx versus B at 5 K with P fixed at values above P1. Instead of the conventional B-linear profile, ρyx bends over at low B (2 to 3 T), implying an extraordinary contribution to σxy at large B. (B) σxy versus B (derived from the measured ρij) at three values of P. The Drude expression fits well to the curves at low B but reveals an excess contribution (shaded in the curve at 25 kbar) at large B, identified with Embedded Image, that increases with B. (C) Ratio Embedded Image (see fits in the Supplementary Materials) versus P in samples A1 and A2 (x = 0.5). The ratio, which is proportional to 〈Ωz〉, shows a sharp increase at P1, followed by a milder variation in the metallic phase. (D) Effect of B on the Weyl node separations (viewed along [¯1¯1¯1]). In zero B (left), the Weyl nodes are equal in size and symmetrically located about L1 (Ω vanishes). A finite Zeeman field (right) increases the separation and Fermi energy of the pair Embedded Image while decreasing them in Embedded Image. The explicit breaking of TRS leads to a finite Embedded Image.

The total (observed) Hall conductivity σxy is the sum of the conventional Hall and anomalous Hall conductivities, Embedded Image and Embedded Image, respectively (Fig. 3B). With Embedded Image given by the Drude expression, we find that a good fit to σxy is achieved if we assume Embedded Image, where Embedded Image is the AHE amplitude and g(x) is the smoothed step function 1/(ex + 1), with x being a reduced field (Supplementary Materials). In terms of Ω, Embedded Image is given by (16)Embedded Image(1)where Embedded Image is the Fermi-Dirac distribution, 〈Ωz〉 is the Berry curvature averaged over the FS, and ntot is the total carrier density. From the fits at each P, we can track the variation of Embedded Image versus P. As shown in Fig. 3C, the curvature 〈Ωz〉 is negligible below P1 but becomes large in the metallic phase, consistent with the Weyl scenario.

In Fig. 3B, we plot the observed σxy (solid curves) together with the Drude curve for Embedded Image (dashed curves). Their difference is Embedded Image (shaded region in the curve at 25 kbar). Similar results are obtained in A2 and E1 (Supplementary Materials). Embedded Image grows quite abruptly at an onset field BA close to where the system enters the lowest (n = 0) LL. Above BA, the increasing dominance of the AHE current accounts for the abrupt bending of ρyx already noted in Fig. 3A, as well as the sharp increase above BA in ρyx/Be in Fig. 2C. The observation that Embedded Image is most prominent within the n = 0 LL (which is strictly chiral for Weyl fermions) suggests to us that it is intimately related to the chirality of the nodes.

Each Weyl node acts as a source (χ = 1) or sink (χ = −1) of Ω. As mentioned, in zero B, TRS requires the net sum of Ω over each pair of Weyl nodes to vanish (Fig. 3D). The ab initio calculations (Supplementary Materials) reveal how this cancellation is spoiled when TRS is broken in finite field B. A finite Zeeman field λ shifts the band energies, depending on their spin texture. This increases the k-space separation and Fermi energy of one pair of nodes, say Embedded Image, while reducing them in the other Embedded Image (Fig. 3D). The unbalancing creates a finite Ω (hence, Embedded Image) that grows with B (Supplementary Materials).

Giant MR

Perhaps the most marked feature in Pb1−xSnxTe is the appearance of giant negative MR at pressures just above P2. In Fig. 4A, we show the MR curves in sample Q1 for selected T with P fixed at 28 kbar (roughly 3 kbar above P2). At 4.3 K, ρxx decreases by a factor of 30 as B increases to 10 T (aside from a slight dip feature below 0.5 T). In Fig. 4B, similar curves for E1 (at pressure P = 25.4 kbar) show an even larger negative MR (the weak-B dip feature is more prominent as well). The large negative MR is steadily suppressed as we increase P beyond the P2 boundary. The negative MR magnitude is similar in magnitude in both the transverse MR and longitudinal MR geometries (B || Embedded Image and B || Embedded Image, respectively). This implies a Zeeman spin mechanism. Finally, we note that, in both Q1 and E1, ρxx measured at 10 T decreases as T →5 K (that is, the system is metallic).

Fig. 4 Large, negative MR.

A large isotropic MR is observed when P is fixed just above P2 in samples Q1 and E1. (A) ρxx versus B in Q1 (x = 0.32) at selected T, with P = 28 kbar. At P > P2, both samples are insulators at B = 0 T. However, at B = 10 T, both are metallic (ρxx decreases with T). In (B), similar curves show an even larger negative MR in sample E1 (x = 0.25). (C) Ab initio phase diagram (Supplementary Materials) in the plane of a versus λ at L1 for B || [¯1¯12]. With increasing λ, the Weyl node annihilation boundary (left V-shaped wedge shaded yellow) expands. A weaker expansion occurs at the creation boundary. (D) Effect of B (yellow arrow) on the locations of the Weyl nodes around L1, L2, and L3.

DISCUSSION

The anomalously large changes in ρxx imply that the insulating state (at zero B) is converted to a metallic state in finite B. This is confirmed in the ab initio calculation (Supplementary Materials). A large λ favors the Weyl phase (the left V-shaped yellow region in Fig. 4C). As the phase boundary now tilts into the insulating side, the metallic phase is reentrant in increasing B. The observation of the giant negative MR provides further evidence in support of the Weyl node scenario.

As predicted in previous studies (14), gap closing in materials lacking inversion symmetry leads to a metallic phase that is protected by the distinct chirality of Weyl nodes. Pb1−xSnxTe is an instructive first example. Increasing pressure P drives an IM transition at P1, with ρ (at 5 K) falling by four to seven orders of magnitude. Above P1, the growth of the FS calipers is tracked by large SdH oscillations. The number of nodes (12) is consistent with the appearance of four Weyl nodes at each of the 3 L1 points on the BZ surface. The Berry curvature, rendered finite in B, leads to an AHE that is most prominent in the n = 0 LL. Finally, we find that the boundary P2 is shifted in finite B. The reentrance of the metallic phase leads to a marked decrease in ρxx by a factor of 30 to 50.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Crystal growth

Single crystals of Pb1−xSnxTe were grown by the conventional vertical Bridgman technique. High-purity elements (5N) with the targeted values of x were sealed in carbon-coated quartz tubes under a high vacuum of ~10−5 mbar. The ampoules were heated at 1050°C for 12 hours. To ensure homogeneous mixing of the melt and to avoid bubble formation in the bottom, we stirred the ampoules. The ampoules were slowly lowered through the crystallization zone of the furnace, at the rate of 1 mm/hour. High-quality single-crystal boules of length ~10 cm were obtained. The crystal boules were cut into segments of 1 cm to investigate the bulk electronic properties along the boule length. The crystals were easily cleavable along different crystallographic planes.

A major difficulty in the rock salts is having to ensure that the chemical potential of the alloy lies within the bulk gap (otherwise, the pressure-induced changes to the gap will not be observable). To achieve this goal in crystals with Sn content x = 0.5, we have found it expedient to dope the starting material with indium [at the 6% level, with composition (Pb0.5Sn0.5)1−yInyTe, with y = 0.06]. Indium doping has previously been carried out and investigated by several groups to understand the superconducting phase in Pb1−xSnxTe (1719). Zhong et al. (19) have reported that In-doped Pb1−xSnxTe (x = 0.5) induces an insulating behavior. However, in our judgment, the precise role of In doping in the Pb-based rock salts is not well understood and merits further detailed investigation.

The x-ray diffractograms recorded for two powdered specimens of two typical samples are shown in fig. S4. The grown crystals were single-phased. The diffraction peaks were in very close agreement with the rock salt crystal structure of space group FmEmbedded Imagem.

Some of the parameters measured in the four samples investigated (A1, A2, E1, and Q1) are reported in Table 1. The mobilities in E1 (p-type) and Q1 (n-type) were very high (500,000 and 4.2 × 106 cm2/Vs, respectively). Although the samples with x = 0.50 (A1 and A2) had lower mobilities (18,000 and 29,000 cm2/Vs, respectively), clear SdH oscillations were observed above P1.

Measurement of dielectric constant

We provide more details on the measurements of the relative dielectric constants ε1. We adopted the (modified) Sawyer-Tower method (20, 21). The circuit of the original Sawyer-Tower method is shown in Fig. 5A. Figure 5B shows the modified method using an operational amplifier (op-amp) (21).

Fig. 5 Measurement of dielectric response.

(A) Electrical circuit for measuring the relative dielectric constant ε1 of the sample. The voltage Vy ~ VxCs/C0 < Vx is proportional to the dielectric displacement D. By contrast, the applied voltage Vx is proportional to the electrical field E in the sample. Therefore, the curve of Vx versus Vy gives the relation between E and D, yielding the relative dielectric constant ε1 as a function of applied electric field E. (B) Modified electrical circuit of (A). The op-amp forces the point M to act as a virtual ground. The integration circuit yields Vy = VxCs/C2 when the relation V1/R1 = Vx/Rs is satisfied. Because C2 does not have to satisfy C2Cs in (B), a large value for Vy can be realized. (C) Curve relating E and D (Vx versus Vy), which yields a relative dielectric constant ε1 as large as 5 × 104 even in the limit E→0 (inset). This implies that the system is in the FE state. (D) Apparent nonlinear relation between Vx and Vy caused by nonlinearity in the resistive component Rs of the sample. The inset shows how Rs varies with increasing E.

For the setup shown in Fig. 5A, the sample with a capacitance component Cs and a resistance component Rs was connected in a series with a known reference capacitance C0Cs. The reference capacitance C0 was connected in parallel with a fixed resistor R0 in series with an adjustable voltage source V0 (or, equivalently, a variable resistor Rc) that was set such that the voltage Vy is inphase with voltage Vx, where Vx and Vy represent the voltages across the whole electrical circuit and the reference capacitor C0, respectively. Because C0Cs was satisfied, the following relations hold: Vs ~ Vx, Vy ~ VxCs/C0Vx. Here, Vs is the voltage applied across the sample. This means that point M in the figure can be treated as a virtual ground. This yields the condition V0/R0 ~ Vx/Rs.

The setup in Fig. 5B is the same as that in Fig. 5A except that the op-amp is used to provide a more stable virtual ground at point M. From point M, current IF was driven to the op-amp connected to C2 and R2 in parallel. Here, a large resistor R2 (R2C2 ≫ 1/ω) was connected in parallel as the leak resistor so that the capacitor C2 does not become overloaded. The integration circuit yielded the equation Embedded Image. If the adjustable voltage source V1 is set to cancel the current Is flowing into the sample, that is, if V1/R1 = Vx/Rs is satisfied, then the current IF equals the current flowing into the capacitive component of the sample Is = dQ/dt = d(CsVx)/dt. This gives Vy = VxCs/C2, similar to the expression obtained for the case in Fig. 5A.

The advantage of using the op-amp is that one can choose any value of C2 (as long the condition R2C2 >> 1/ω is satisfied) to attain a larger signal Vy than possible in the case in Fig. 5A. In general, the two setups in Fig. 5 (A and B) worked well. However, because the working frequency range of our op-amp (LF356N) was between 30 Hz and 30 kHz, we used setup A above 30 kHz. For frequencies below 30 kHz, both setups A and B were used. We confirmed that the two setups yielded the same results.

The measured results of the relative dielectric constants are plotted in Fig. 5C for f = 100 kHz and in Fig. 5D for f = 10 kHz. Figure 5C shows that Vy = VxCs/C2 = DS/C2 is proportional to Vx = Et. Here, E is the electric field in the sample, D is the dielectric displacement, and S and t are the area and the thickness of the sample, respectively. Using the values S = 0.234 mm2 and t = 0.79 mm, we found the relative dielectric constants ε1 ~ 5 × 104 (shown in the inset of Fig. 5C). Unfortunately, the sample suffered dielectric breakdown above E ~ 100 V/cm, which prevented us from observing the saturation of dielectric displacement D at higher electric fields as should be expected from the FE behavior. This large relative dielectric constant ε1 ~ 5 × 104 observed in the limit E→0 strongly implies that the system is in the FE state.

We remark that the nonlinear behavior shown in Fig. 5D, previously interpreted by Möllmann et al. (22) as evidence for the FE state, is actually not the manifestation of the FE state. Rather, it arises from the fact that the resistive component of the sample Rs is strongly E-dependent, as shown in the inset. Because Rs is nonlinear, it is not possible to compensate the current Is flowing through the resistive component Rs because V1/R1 = Vx/Rs cannot be satisfied for every Vx, unless V1 is changed nonlinearly. Therefore, if V1 is set to compensate the Rs at some fixed value of Vx (7 V in the case of Fig. 5D), then other parts of Vx cannot be compensated. As a result, they produce a nonlinear behavior that looks like the saturation expected in the FE state. The way to avoid this is to use a higher frequency f so that a larger portion of the current flows into the capacitive component Cs rather than into the resistive component Rs. This is precisely the case shown in Fig. 5C (f = 100 kHz).

SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS

Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/5/e1602510/DC1

section S1. Ab initio band calculations

section S2. Field-induced anomalous Hall effect

fig. S1. Calculated k-space trajectories of Weyl nodes in Pb1−xSnxTe (x = 0.5) under applied pressure in zero magnetic field.

fig. S2. Phase diagram of the Weyl phase in Pb1-xSnxTe (x = 0.25) and orbit parameters.

fig. S3. Phase diagram of the Weyl phase in Pb1−xSnxTe (x = 0.25) in the α-λ plane with applied B || [¯1¯12].

fig. S4. X-ray diffractograms of two powdered specimens of Pb1−xSnxTe taken from the crystal boules.

fig. S5. Supplemental data of (Pb0.5Sn0.5)1−yInyTe for samples A1 and A2.

fig. S6. Supplemental data of Pb0.75Sn0.25Te for sample E1.

References (2333)

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REFERENCES AND NOTES

Acknowledgments: Funding: The experimental project was supported by the U.S. Army Research Office (W911NF-16-1-0116) and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation’s Emergent Phenomena in Quantum Systems Initiative through grant GBMF4539 (to N.P.O.). R.J.C. acknowledges NSF–Materials Research Science and Engineering Center grant DMR 1420541 (crystal growth). N.K. was supported by NSF–Partnership for Research and Education in Materials grant DMR-1205734 (calculations) and the U.S. Army of Defense Grant number W911NF-16-1-0487 for the computer cluster. Author contributions: T.L. conceived the idea of applying pressure to PbSnTe and developed the experimental program with N.P.O. The samples were grown by S.K., Q.G., and R.J.C. The measurements were performed by T.L. with some assistance from J.L. Analyses of the results were performed by T.L., N.P.O., J.K., and N.K. The ab initio calculations were performed by J.K. and N.K. The manuscript was written by T.L. and N.P.O. with inputs from J.K. and N.K. Competing interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Data and materials availability: All data needed to evaluate the conclusions in the paper are present in the paper and/or the Supplementary Materials. Additional data related to this paper may be requested from T.L. (liang16{at}stanford.edu) or N.P.O. (npo{at}princeton.edu).
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