Research ArticleANTHROPOLOGY

Simple technologies and diverse food strategies of the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene at Huaca Prieta, Coastal Peru

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Science Advances  24 May 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 5, e1602778
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1602778
  • Table 1 Radiocarbon dates for Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene layers at sites.

    All dates were calibrated using shcal04 (44), unless otherwise noted. Bracketed values indicate that the calibrated range impinges upon the end of calibration data set.

    Sample no.Provenienceδ13CConventional
    radiocarbon
    1σ (68%) calibrated
    age range (B.P.)
    2σ (95.4%) calibrated
    age range (B.P.)
    Material
    Unit 9
      Beta437295Premound occupation, Layer 12−28.212,610 ± 4014,771–15,07014,520–15,155*Wood charcoal
    Unit 12
      Beta235952Premound occupation, Layer 11−25.29,580 ± 4010,698–11,08910,600–11,159*Charred rush stem
    (Juncus sp.)
      Beta437290Premound occupation, Layer 20−29.712,410 ± 4014,154–14,78514,109–14,961Wood charcoal
      Beta437288Premound occupation, Layer 23−29.212,420 ± 4014,166–14,80914,119–14,972Wood charcoal
      D-AMS 016635Premound occupation, Layer 23−13.312,602 ± 3514,590–15,137*14,317–15,182*Wood charcoal
    Unit 15/21
      Beta290621Premound occupation,
    Stratum 9
    −25.611,500 ± 5013,294–13,40113,260–13,420Charred wood
      Beta299536Premound occupation,
    Stratum 13
    −28.011,800 ± 5013,757–13,517**13,794–13,459*Wood charcoal
      Beta310272Premound occupation
    top of Layer 13a
    −22.812,280 ± 6014,005–14,47713,924–14,867Deer bone
      Beta310273Premound occupation
    bottom of Layer 13a
    −29.012,240 ± 5013,991–14,18413,891–14,530Wood charcoal
    Unit 16
      AA86632Layer 14-6§−14.29,230 ± 4010,379–10,18310,486–10,158Avocado seed (Persea sp.)
      D-AMS 013332Layer 16−23.812,594 ± 6214,386–15,143*14,221–15,217*Bean seed (Phaseolus sp.)
    Unit 22 (Paredones)
      Beta343109Premound, Sangamon
    Terrace, Level 7
    −19.29,330 ± 4010,308–10,55910,285–10,578Chile pepper seed
    (Capsicum spp.)
    Test Pit 22
      Beta210862Premound occupation,
    Layer 20 (4a)
    −27.49,530 ± 5010,594–10,78510,579–[11,000]Wood charcoal
      AA75326Premound occupation,
    Layer 22 (8a)
    −26.810,770 ± 34012,164–13,09611,508–13,344Wood charcoal
      Beta310274Premound occupation,
    Layer 25 (8b)
    −21.712,950 ± 5013,554–13,82813,301–14,034Sea lion bone
      Beta290620Premound occupation,
    Layer 28 (11a)
    −28.311,780 ± 5013,510–13,732‡13,440–13,720Wood charcoal

    *Calibration done on curve (shcal13) other than shcal04.

    †Calibrated using marine 09.14c calibration curve with delta uncertainty of 725 ± 173 (35).

    ‡Calibrated using Intcal09 calibration curve.

    §Layer 14-6 refers to a layer with several distinct lenses numbered 1 to 7.

    • Table 2 Distribution and type of recovered faunal and floral remains in excavated sites.

      Species type and distribution for phases I and II, the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene, in excavated units at Huaca Prieta, Paredones, and Domestic Unit 16. TP, Test Pit; LP, Late Pleistocene; EH, Early Holocene.

      TaxonUnit 9*Unit 12*Unit 15/21Unit 16*Unit 22*TP 22Total% of
      total
      by taxa
      LayerLayerLayerLayerEH
      Premound
      Level 7
      Layer
      LP11LP12EH11EH13LP15?LP17LP20LP23EH6-4LP8?LP9?LP13aEH13LP15LP22-5aLP25-8a–bLP28-11a
      Limpets
        Fissurella peruviana
      (keyhole limpet)
      321324419
        Fissurella maxima
      (keyhole limpet)
      21216
        Total limpets259.43
      Marine snails/gastropods
        Tegula atra
      (marine snail)
      21339
        Thais chocolata21213211
        Total marine
      snails/gastropods
      207.55
      Bivalves
        Protothaca thaca
      (clam)
      21711122
        Total bivalves228.30
      Marine crabs
        Platyxanthus
      orbignyi

      (violet crab)
      116210
        Total marine crabs103.77
      Sharks and rays
        Galeorhinus sp.
      (school shark)
      112
        Myliobatis sp.
      (eagle ray)
      11
        Carcharhinus sp.
      (requiem shark)
      3111232233470
        Total sharks
      and rays
      7327.55
      Bony fish
        M. cephalus (mullet)11
        P. peruanus
      (coco, Peruvian
      banded croaker)
      88
        Sciaena deliciosa
      (drum)
      1717
        S. starksi (S. weineri)
      (sea bass and
      robalo)
      44
        M. g. peruanus
      (hake)
      11
        Not identified33
        Total bony fish3412.83
      Marine birds
        Larus sp. (seagull)121125113
        Phalacrocorax
      bougainvillii

      (guanay and
      cormorant)
      211610
        Pelecanus thagus
      (Peruvian pelican)
      77
        Not identified77
        Total marine birds3713.96
      Wetland/land birds
        D. warszewiczi
      (scrub blackbird)
      112
        Total wetland/
      land birds
      2.75
        Mammals
        Otaria
      sp. (sea lion)
      2116218636
        Otaria flavescens
      (sea lion)
      213
        O. virginianus
      (white-tailed
      deer)
      33
        Total mammals4215.85
        Faunal subtotal154102631271716410134012229265~100
      Flora
        Capsicum spp.
      (chile pepper)
      4425.00
        Cucurbita sp.
      (gourd)
      3318.75
        Persea americana
      (avocado)
      116.25
        Phaseolus sp.
      (bean)
      14531.25
        T. integrifolia
      (palo bobo)
      3318.75
        Flora subtotal00000000000045700016~100
        Total154102631271716410539712229281

      *New data addition since 2012.

      Supplementary Materials

      • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/5/e1602778/DC1

        section S1. Sangamon Terrace and wetlands

        section S2. Cultural features and artifacts

        section S3. Exploited biozones

        section S4. Faunal and floral assemblages

        fig. S1. Location map of all excavated Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene units at all reported sites.

        fig. S2. Schematic location of Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene deposits underneath mounds.

        fig. S3. Stratigraphic profile of Unit 15/21.

        fig. S4. Stratigraphic profile of Test Pit 22.

        fig. S5. Buried cultural layer in Unit 15/21.

        fig. S6. Stone tools dated between 15,000 and 12,000 cal yr B.P.

        fig. S7. Stone tools dated between 12,000 and 10,000 cal yr B.P.

        fig. S8. Perforated and worked pebble possibly used as weight stone for a trap made of rush stems.

        fig. S9. Fragment of rush matting tightly woven.

        fig. S10. Schematic of the isolated remnant Sangamon Terrace coastal biotic zones showing the ocean and back-barrier wetlands in the distance and the Chicama River running nearby.

        fig. S11. Views of live and dead sea lions on beach before and after being clubbed by local fishermen (to the right and not included in the photo).

        fig. S12. Present-day hunters and fishermen on the coast.

        fig. S13. Archaeological bean seed and avocado stem.

        fig. S14. Archaeological chile pepper seed.

        table S1. Distribution and type of cultural features recovered from sites.

        table S2. Distribution and attributes of lithics recovered from sites.

        table S3. Distribution and other attributes of flake tools, spalls, and other tools from sites.

        table S4. Capsicum spp. seed attributes.

        References (3744)

      • Supplementary Materials

        This PDF file includes:

        • section S1. Sangamon Terrace and wetlands
        • section S2. Cultural features and artifacts
        • section S3. Exploited biozones
        • section S4. Faunal and floral assemblages
        • fig. S1. Location map of all excavated Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene units at all reported sites.
        • fig. S2. Schematic location of Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene deposits underneath mounds.
        • fig. S3. Stratigraphic profile of Unit 15/21.
        • fig. S4. Stratigraphic profile of Test Pit 22.
        • fig. S5. Buried cultural layer in Unit 15/21.
        • fig. S6. Stone tools dated between 15,000 and 12,000 cal yr B.P.
        • fig. S7. Stone tools dated between 12,000 and 10,000 cal yr B.P.
        • fig. S8. Perforated and worked pebble possibly used as weight stone for a trap made of rush stems.
        • fig. S9. Fragment of rush matting tightly woven.
        • fig. S10. Schematic of the isolated remnant Sangamon Terrace coastal biotic zones showing the ocean and back-barrier wetlands in the distance and the Chicama River running nearby.
        • fig. S11. Views of live and dead sea lions on beach before and after being clubbed by local fishermen (to the right and not included in the photo).
        • fig. S12. Present-day hunters and fishermen on the coast.
        • fig. S13. Archaeological bean seed and avocado stem.
        • fig. S14. Archaeological chile pepper seed.
        • table S1. Distribution and type of cultural features recovered from sites.
        • table S2. Distribution and attributes of lithics recovered from sites.
        • table S3. Distribution and other attributes of flake tools, spalls, and other tools from sites.
        • table S4. Capsicum spp. seed attributes.
        • References (37–44)

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