Research ArticlePALEONTOLOGY

Controlled hydroxyapatite biomineralization in an ~810 million-year-old unicellular eukaryote

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Science Advances  28 Jun 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 6, e1700095
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700095
  • Fig. 1 Stratigraphy, geochemistry, and mineralogy of Mount Slipper strata.

    (A) Left: Composite stratigraphic column at Mount Slipper showing lithology, carbon isotope chemostratigraphy, and the location of the Re-Os horizon relative to the fossiliferous strata. Right: Data for TOC (18), glauconite/illite polymorphs, P/Al (18), and gypsum weight percent in the Mount Slipper section. Additional geochemical and mineralogical data can be found in fig. S3 and table S1. (B) Map of northwest Canada showing the location of Mount Slipper; inset map of Canada showing the location of Yukon. See Materials and Methods for more information on Mount Slipper sedimentology, stratigraphy, and nomenclature.

  • Fig. 2 Electron micrographs of an ASM specimen.

    (A) Scanning electron micrograph of a cluster of unnamed ASM taxa. (B) Scanning electron micrograph of a single unnamed ASM specimen from (A). (C) Area shown in white box in (B): Close-up of a single pore in scale surface showing HAP fibers. (D) Mosaic TEM image of a different ASM specimen with similar morphology to that shown in (A). Note the organization of HAP fibers into bundles that are interwoven to form a larger-scale meshwork structure with ovoid-shaped pores ~1 to 2 μm wide. (E) HR-TEM image of the edge of pore from (D) showing interwoven HAP fibers. (F) HR-TEM image of a single crystal of HAP from the white box in (E). Note that the image is rotated 45°. Spacing and direction are shown. Inset: Single area electron diffraction pattern of the crystal in fig. S2D.

  • Fig. 3 Re-Os isochron diagram for Mount Slipper 1406 samples.

    The age uncertainty of 6.3 Ma also includes the uncertainty associated with the 187Re decay constant. All isotopic composition data and elemental data can be found in table S1.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/6/e1700095/DC1

    fig. S1. Stratigraphy and sedimentology at Mount Slipper.

    fig. S2. Additional TEM and HR-TEM images of an ASM specimen.

    fig. S3. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrograph of an ASM sample.

    fig. S4. Additional geochemical and mineralogical data for Mount Slipper.

    table S1. All geochemical and geochronological data presented in the paper.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Stratigraphy and sedimentology at Mount Slipper.
    • fig. S2. Additional TEM and HR-TEM images of an ASM specimen.
    • fig. S3. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrograph of an ASM sample.
    • fig. S4. Additional geochemical and mineralogical data for Mount Slipper.
    • Legend for table S1

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • table S1 (Microsoft Excel format). All geochemical and geochronological data presented in the paper.

    Files in this Data Supplement: