Research ArticleSOCIAL SCIENCES

Residential relocation and change in social capital: A natural experiment from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami

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Science Advances  26 Jul 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 7, e1700426
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700426
  • Table 1 Characteristics of the analytic sample in baseline and follow-up survey.

    JPY, Japanese Yen.

    Baseline survey in August 2010Follow-up survey in October 2013
    n*%MeanSDn*%MeanSD
    Relocation
      No312594.7
      Group relocation792.4
      Individual relocation962.9
      Total3300100
    Loss of relatives and/or friends
      No208062.0
      Yes127738.0
      Total3357100
    Age
      (continuous)342173.36.0342176.56.0
    Equivalent income
      Under 2.0 million JPY136548.6152352.9
      2.0 million JPY and over144251.4135447.1
      Total28071002877100
    Employment status
      Nonemployment246581.6287186.6
      Employment55418.444413.4
      Total30191003315100
    Marital status (divorce or bereavement)
      No (married)240474.0230569.6
      Yes84326.0100530.4
      Total32471003310100
    Living alone
      No302890.9297588.7
      Yes3039.138011.3
      Total33311003355100
    Depressive symptoms
      Lower risk (≤4)205469.6203868.4
      Higher risk (≥5)89930.494331.6
      Total29531002981100
    Mutual help
      1: Not at all, 5: Very much33213.540.8233463.540.79
    Trust
      1: Not at all, 5: Very much33523.760.7633723.740.71
    Community attachment
      1: Not at all, 5: Very much33444.000.8233753.960.82
    Frequency meeting with friends
      1: Rarely, 6: Almost everyday32893.761.4733753.661.55
    Number of friends who met for the past month
      1: None, 5: 10 or more32603.611.2633683.451.34
    Frequency participating to sports club
      1: None, 6: Almost everyday28801.881.4432801.811.43
    Frequency participating to hobby club
      1: None, 6: Almost everyday29362.281.4632871.931.39
    Sex (time-invariant variable)
      Male151844.4
      Female190355.6
      Total3421100
    Educational attainment (time-invariant variable)
      9 years and under115935.1
      10 years and over214064.9
      Total3299100

    *Almost all items include missing values (overall analytic sample is 3421).

    †Empty cells at baseline due to data taken before the disaster.

    ‡Empty cells at follow-up due to time-invariant variables.

    • Table 2 Factor structure for measurements of social capital.
      FactorMeasurementFactor loadingsEigenvalueCronbach’s α
      Factor 1Factor 2
      Social
      cohesion
      Mutual help−0.0390.7311.7870.767
      Trust−0.0300.771
      Community attachment0.1040.564
      Informal
      socializing
      and
      social
      participation
      Frequency meeting with friends0.5670.0791.1450.705
      Number of friends who met for the past month0.5920.061
      Frequency participating to sports club per 1 week0.583−0.043
      Frequency participating to hobby club per 1 week0.660−0.054
    • Table 3 Effects of disaster damage on social capital among all analytic samples (n = 3421).
      Outcome: Normalized social cohesionOutcome: Normalized informal socializing
      and social participation
      β Coefficient (95% CI)Pβ Coefficient (95% CI)P
      Relocation (ref. no.)
        1: Group (n = 79)−0.033 (−0.069 to 0.004)0.0790.053 (0.011 to 0.095)0.013
        2: Individual (n = 96)−0.064 (−0.096 to −0.032)<0.001−0.039 (−0.074 to −0.003)0.035
      Loss of relatives/friends
        Yes = 1, No = 00.002 (−0.009 to 0.013)0.722−0.005 (−0.018 to 0.008)0.438
      Age
        (continuous)0.001 (−0.002 to 0.002)0.939−0.012 (−0.015 to −0.009)<0.001
      Equivalent income (ref.: <2 million = 0)
        ≥2 million = 1−0.004 (−0.015 to 0.006)0.402−0.004 (−0.017 to 0.009)0.532
      Employment status
        1: Employment, 0: Nonemployment0.016 (0.001 to 0.032)0.049−0.016 (−0.037 to 0.005)0.141
      Divorce or bereavement
        1: Yes, 0: No−0.033 (−0.053 to −0.013)0.001−0.003 (−0.030 to 0.024)0.807
      Living alone
        1: Yes, 0: No0.015 (−0.008 to 0.038)0.2060.021 (−0.003 to 0.045)0.091
      Depressive symptoms
        1: Higher risk (≥5), 0: Lower risk (≤4)−0.033 (−0.044 to −0.022)<0.001−0.041 (−0.054 to −0.029)<0.001
    • Table 4 Effects of disaster damage on social capital among respondents who lived in the inundated area (n = 523).
      Outcome: Normalized social cohesionOutcome: Normalized informal socializing
      and social participation
      β Coefficient (95% CI)Pβ Coefficient (95% CI)P
      Relocation (ref. no.)
        1: Group (n = 78)−0.022 (−0.069 to 0.025)0.3510.076 (0.027 to 0.125)0.002
        2: Individual (n = 42)−0.063 (−0.112 to −0.013)0.014−0.016 (−0.064 to 0.031)0.503
      Loss of relatives/friends
        Yes = 1, No = 0−0.017 (−0.051 to 0.016)0.305−0.027 (−0.063 to 0.009)0.144
      Age
        (continuous)−0.001 (−0.009 to 0.008)0.907−0.015 (−0.023 to −0.006)0.001
      Equivalent income (ref.: < 2 million = 0)
        ≥2 million = 1−0.009 (−0.048 to 0.031)0.646−0.006 (−0.047 to 0.035)0.765
      Employment status
        1: Employment, 0: Nonemployment−0.003 (−0.047 to 0.041)0.893−0.021 (−0.062 to 0.020)0.310
      Divorce or bereavement
        1: Yes, 0: No−0.051 (−0.097 to −0.004)0.032−0.019 (−0.076 to 0.039)0.513
      Living alone
        1: Yes, 0: No0.020 (−0.032 to 0.073)0.4500.019 (−0.033 to 0.071)0.476
      Depressive symptoms
        1: Higher risk (≥5), 0: Lower risk (≤4)−0.015 (−0.050 to 0.020)0.403−0.041 (−0.076 to −0.006)0.022

    Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/7/e1700426/DC1

      fig. S1. Timeline of relocation among respondents.

      table S1. Comparison of baseline characteristics of all analytic samples, selected samples, and local census population aged 65 years or older in 2010.

      table S2. Sex- and age-adjusted averaged social capital scores at both surveys.

      table S3. Distribution of disaster experiences among baseline covariates for all analytic samples (n = 3421).

      table S4. Distribution of disaster experiences among baseline covariates for respondents who lived in the inundated area (n = 523).

    • Supplementary Materials

      This PDF file includes:

      • fig. S1. Timeline of relocation among respondents.
      • table S1. Comparison of baseline characteristics of all analytic samples, selected samples, and local census population aged 65 years or older in 2010.
      • table S2. Sex- and age-adjusted averaged social capital scores at both surveys.
      • table S3. Distribution of disaster experiences among baseline covariates for all analytic samples (n = 3421).
      • table S4. Distribution of disaster experiences among baseline covariates for respondents who lived in the inundated area (n = 523).

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