Research ArticleAPPLIED SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING

Multiple-wavelength neutron holography with pulsed neutrons

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Science Advances  18 Aug 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 8, e1700294
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700294

Figures

  • Fig. 1 Illustrations of the principle of multiple-wavelength neutron holography and the experimental setup.

    (A) Schematic drawing of the experimental setup. (B) Time-of-flight spectrum from Eu in CaF2. (C) Concept of hologram recording. The hologram represents the γ ray intensity as a function of the azimuthal angle φ and polar angle θ. (D and E) Principle of neutron holography in the internal detector mode. The times of flight of the neutrons in (D) and (E) are ToF = t1 and t3, respectively.

  • Fig. 2 Setup for multiple-wavelength neutron holography and absorption effect on holographic amplitude.

    (A) Photograph. (B) Schematic of geometry used for consideration of the absorption effect. (C) Decrement in the holographic amplitude due to the absorption effect.

  • Fig. 3 Neutron holograms of environmental structure around Eu in CaF2.

    (A) Volume hologram. (B) 2D hologram at |k| = 4.05 Å−1.

  • Fig. 4 3D atomic images around Eu3+ in CaF2.

    (A) Reconstruction from experimental hologram. (B) Reconstruction from calculated hologram. The calculation was carried out by assuming the simple substitution of Eu at Ca sites. No structural modification due to doping was assumed.

  • Fig. 5 2D images at typical atomic planes.

    (A) Ca plane at z = 0.0 Å. The Eu atom was located at the origin. (B) F plane at z = 1.35 Å. (C) Ca plane at z = 2.70 Å.

  • Fig. 6 XAFS result of Eu-doped CaF2.

    (A) XANES spectra of the Eu-doped CaF2 (red line) and a trivalent reference sample. (B) Magnitude of Fourier transform of EXAFS oscillation of Eu-doped CaF2. Dotted and solid lines indicate experimental and calculated data, respectively.