Research ArticleARCHEOLOGY

Effects of population dispersal on regional signaling networks: An example from northern Iroquoia

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Science Advances  09 Aug 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 8, e1700497
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1700497
  • Fig. 1 Regional map.

    Geographic groups used in the SNA indicated.

  • Fig. 2 Network visualizations, A.D. 1400–1500 and 1350–1450.

    (A) A.D. 1400–1500, all nodes; (B) A.D. 1400–1500, JC nodes removed; (C) A.D. 1350–1450, all nodes; (D) A.D. 1350–1450, JC nodes removed. Larger nodes are those with flow betweenness values of >1σ above the mean for each graph. Heavy black edges (lines) indicate edge betweenness values of >3σ above the mean of values greater than zero.

  • Fig. 3 Network visualizations, A.D. 1450–1550 and 1500–1600.

    (A) A.D. 1450–1550, all nodes; (B) A.D. 1450–1550, JC removed; (C) A.D. 1500–1600, all nodes; (D) A.D. 1500–1600, SLI Upstream removed. Larger nodes are those with flow betweenness values of >1σ above the mean for each graph. Heavy black edges (lines) indicate edge betweenness values of >3σ above the mean of values greater than zero.

  • Table 1 Network fragmentation by time period and BR cut points.
    TimeBR ≥
    100
    BR ≥
    110
    BR ≥
    120
    BR ≥
    130
    BR ≥
    140
    BR ≥
    150
    1350–14000.0680.1340.1970.2780.5580.525
    1400–15000.0210.0620.2340.3400.5940.785
    1450–15500.0000.0770.3910.4700.6110.866
    1500–16000.0000.2060.3910.7410.7950.822
  • Table 2 Regressions of geodesic distance on BR by network.
    TimenDistance (km)rR2P
    1350–1450518500.08120.00660.06487
    11831000.07110.00500.01450
    16271500.16060.02580.00000
    19752000.20470.04190.00000
    22912500.28540.08150.00000
    27573000.39850.15880.00000
    30833500.44130.21180.00000
    33434000.47390.22450.00000
    36055000.47340.22410.00000
    37417630.47720.22770.00000
    1400–1500564500.19330.03740.00000
    11341000.31280.09780.00000
    16501500.41080.16880.00000
    21622000.38940.15160.00000
    26362500.45030.20270.00000
    29662750.50230.25230.00000
    33093000.55750.31080.00000
    45609660.57480.33040.00000
    1450–1550266500.04300.00180.48473
    6131000.26550.07050.00000
    9091500.39370.15500.00000
    12942000.41730.17410.00000
    16772500.49740.24730.00000
    18692750.51160.26180.00000
    20433000.54890.30130.00000
    29269650.54230.29400.00000
    1500–1600216500.21520.04630.00146
    4531000.02000.00040.67086
    6291500.10230.01050.01025
    8322000.02690.00070.43828
    11272500.30630.09380.00000
    12693000.39360.15480.00000
    15463500.52130.27170.00000
    16413750.54560.29770.00000
    17314000.56630.32060.00000
    20165710.60470.36560.00000
  • Table 3 Node-pair geodesic distance central tendency values.
    NetworknMean distance (km)SD (km)Median distance (km)
    1350–14503741206.5145.1184.5
    1400–15004560224.7154.1216.0
    1450–15502926235.4149.1225.7
    1500–16002016233.0135.2230.7
  • Table 4 Network group removal fragmentation values.
    Network1350–1450
    BR ≥ 100BR ≥ 110BR ≥ 120
    All groups0.0680.1340.197
    Mohawk River removed0.0000.1150.159
    Oneida Lowlands removed0.0240.1190.187
    Finger Lakes removed0.0240.1390.204
    JC removed0.0250.1450.258
    Upstream St. Lawrence removed0.0630.1010.038
    Downstream St. Lawrence removed0.0580.1150.012
    Prince Edward County removed0.0240.1370.202
    Trent River removed0.0240.1420.209
    Rouge-Duffins-Durham rivers removed0.0250.1450.013
    Credit-Humber-Don rivers removed0.0270.1550.027
    Simcoe County–Collingwood removed0.0290.1650.478
    West of Credit River removed0.0280.1370.214
    1400–1500
    All groups0.0210.0620.234
    Mohawk River removed0.0220.0430.055
    Oneida Lowlands removed0.1070.1290.056
    Finger Lakes removed0.0220.0640.241
    JC removed0.2290.2760.306
    Upstream St. Lawrence removed0.0230.0680.257
    Downstream St. Lawrence removed0.0000.0220.203
    Prince Edward County removed0.0220.0650.246
    Trent River removed0.0220.0650.246
    Rouge-Duffins-Durham rivers removed0.0220.0650.246
    Credit-Humber-Don rivers removed0.0260.0760.284
    Simcoe County–Collingwood removed0.0240.0710.265
    West of Credit River removed0.0230.0670.254
    1450–1550
    All groups0.0000.0770.391
    Mohawk River removed0.0000.0580.244
    Oneida Lowlands removed0.0000.2620.292
    Finger Lakes removed0.0000.0810.410
    JC removed0.0000.1180.490
    Upstream St. Lawrence removed0.0000.0880.418
    Downstream St. Lawrence removed0.0000.0800.384
    Prince Edward County removed0.0000.0800.405
    Trent River removed0.0000.0820.415
    Rouge-Duffins-Durham rivers removed0.0000.0820.415
    Credit-Humber-Don rivers removed0.0000.0880.441
    Simcoe County–Collingwood removed0.0000.0830.420
    West of Credit River removed0.0000.0800.405
    1500–1600
    All groups0.0000.2060.391
    Mohawk River removed0.0000.0390.224
    Oneida Lowlands removed0.0000.2260.400
    Finger Lakes removed0.0000.2230.625
    Lake Erie Plain–Niagara removed0.0000.2690.546
    Upstream St. Lawrence removed0.0680.2270.584
    Trent River removed0.0000.2230.394
    Rouge-Duffins-Durham rivers removed0.0000.2130.402
    Credit-Humber-Don rivers removed0.0000.2160.408
    Simcoe County–Collingwood removed0.0000.2500.468
    West of Credit River removed0.0000.2130.402
  • Table 5 Flow betweenness permutation t test P values.
    GroupnJCNew YorkSt. LawrenceOntario
    1350–1450
    JC70.9930.9250.590
    New York100.0070.0870.001
    St. Lawrence110.0750.9130.060
    Ontario590.4100.9990.940
    1400–1500
    JC181.0000.9981.000
    New York130.0000.0060.010
    St. Lawrence120.0020.9940.932
    Ontario530.0000.9900.068
    1450–1550
    JC110.9980.9581.000
    New York200.0020.1630.999
    St. Lawrence130.0420.8371.000
    Ontario320.0000.0010.000
    Lake Erie PlainNew YorkSt. LawrenceOntario
    1500–1600
    Lake Erie Plain90.0130.0090.737
    New York240.9870.4991.000
    St. Lawrence70.9910.5010.999
    Ontario240.2630.0000.001

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