Research ArticleSPACE SCIENCES

Time-of-day–dependent global distribution of lunar surficial water/hydroxyl

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Science Advances  08 Sep 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 9, e1701286
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701286
  • Fig. 1 Typical M3 reflectance spectra illustrating the removal of the thermal emission component using the surface temperature taken from the PDS and obtained with our method, respectively.

    (A) Mare surface (12.64°E, 20.00°N; local time, 12:45). (B) Highland surface (167.90°E, 20.01°N; local time, 11:32).

  • Fig. 2 Global OHIBD maps in orthographic projection (9° RMS slope).

    The lunar nearside (central meridian 0°) and the farside (central meridian 180°) are shown in the left and right columns, respectively. Black pixels denote missing data. (A) Morning OHIBD maps (local time, 07:00 to 08:00). (B) Midday OHIBD maps (nearside: local time, 12:00 to 14:00; farside: local time, 10:00 to 12:00). (C) Evening OHIBD maps (local time, 16:00 to 17:00).

  • Fig. 3 Regional OHIBD maps.

    (A) Boundary between high- and low-Ti mare basalts in western Oceanus Procellarum: Excerpt from LRO Camera (LROC) Wide-Angle Camera (WAC) mosaic (51), M3-based Ti wt % abundance map obtained with the method of Bhatt et al. (25), and OHIBD maps (morning, midday, and afternoon). (B) Boundary between mare and highland areas south of the crater Pythagoras: Excerpt from LROC WAC mosaic (51) and OHIBD maps (morning, midday, and afternoon). (C) Region around the craters Copernicus and Eratosthenes: Excerpt from LROC WAC mosaic (51) and OHIBD maps (morning, midday, and afternoon) (color coding as in Fig. 2).

  • Fig. 4 OHIBD longitudinal profiles.

    (A) Highland surface west of Oceanus Procellarum. (B) Mare (western Oceanus Procellarum) and highland surface.

  • Fig. 5 Comparison between the thermal emission spectrum of a surface with RMS slope of 9° (solid line) and the thermal emission of a single black body with the best-fitting effective temperature Teff (dashed line).

    (A) Incidence angle 60°. (B) Incidence angle 75°. The emissivity was computed on the basis of the reflectance spectrum of lunar highland sample 62231 (23).

  • Fig. 6 Definition of the OHIBD parameter.

    (A) Part of a typical M3 reflectance spectrum (12.64°E, 20.00°N; local time, 12:45) longward of 2500 nm with linear continuum fitted to the wavelength range of 2537 to 2657 nm. (B) Continuum-removed spectrum obtained by division of the reflectance spectrum by the continuum. The integral between M3 channels 78 and 84 (2697 to 2936 nm) of the continuum-removed spectrum subtracted from 1 is shown in gray.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Global OHIBD maps in orthographic projection (0° RMS slope).
    • fig. S2. Global OHIBD maps in orthographic projection (20° RMS slope).

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