Research ArticleSPACE SCIENCES

Water on the surface of the Moon as seen by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Distribution, abundance, and origins

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Science Advances  13 Sep 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 9, e1701471
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701471
  • Fig. 1 Water content of the lunar surface as derived from the M3 data.

    (A) Global map of ESPAT values (at ~2.86 μm) and estimated water contents (assuming that the irregularly-shaped particles have a diameter of 60 to 80 μm) calculated from the M3 data overlain on a Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter shaded-relief map. Apollo landing sites are labeled with yellow dots. (B) Latitude profile of ESPAT and water content derived from (A) when averaged over all longitudes. (C) Longitude profile of ESPAT values averaged over all latitudes between 35°N and 35°S. Light blue bar indicates the approximate latitude range of mare dominant region. The green bar shows the approximate latitude range of PKT. PKT, Procellarum KREEP Terrane.

  • Fig. 2 Comparison of M3-derived water contents for the ±30° latitude zone, which includes Apollo sampling locations, with water contents measured from bulk Apollo samples (see tables S1 and S2 for individual values and references).
  • Fig. 3 Comparison of water content (ESPAT) with OMAT of lunar regolith.

    Scatterplot of M3 data for (A) the Northern Hemisphere and (B) the Southern Hemisphere. Example map of (C) water content and (D) OMAT for the Thale crater showing spatial coherence between immature regolith and low water content.

  • Fig. 4 Water content maps for previously reported silicic domes (49, 50).

    Features at Gruithuisen, Compton-Belkovich, and Maria exhibit anomalous increases in water content that is suggestive of volatile-rich magma sources, whereas other purported silicic domes lack evidence for increased hydration.

  • Fig. 5 Comparison of M3-derived water map with previously reported exposures of crystalline (unshocked) plagioclase (36) near Mare Crisium and Mare Nectaris.
  • Fig. 6 Diurnal variations in water content of the lunar surface.

    (A) Averaged ESPAT/water content values from 70°N to 70°S latitude at different local times of day (maps are shown in fig. S3). (B) Absolute number of hours relative to local noon for the M3 data used in (A). The example spectra acquired at the same location at different local times of day from (C) the Northern Hemisphere and (D) the Southern Hemisphere show diurnal variations in the strength of OH/H2O absorptions near ~3 μm. i, solar incidence angle; e, emittance angle; g, phase angle.

  • Fig. 7 Estimated water content for lunar swirl at Ingenii.

    (A) Albedo map (750 nm) from the LRO Wide Angle Camera (WAC) mosaic. (B) M3 water map overlain on albedo map. (C) Zoomed-in view of swirl showing locations for (D) examples of the thermally corrected M3 spectra.

  • Fig. 8 Water content map for Bullialdus crater exhibiting increased hydration in central peak, approaching values of ~250 ppm.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/3/9/e1701471/DC1

    Supplementary Text

    fig. S1. The linear trends between ESPAT and weight % H2O for materials typifying the lunar surface.

    fig. S2. Crystalline plagioclase exposures identified in the M3 data by Donaldson Hanna et al. (36) overlain on map of lunar surface water derived from the M3 data.

    fig. S3. The water content (ESPAT) mapped by M3 at three different lunar local time and the respective acquisition time of M3 data.

    fig. S4. Filtering of the M3 data due to spectral artifacts affecting bands 47 and 74.

    fig. S5. Filtering of the M3 data by SNRI (see Methods for details).

    fig. S6. The global water map (ESPAT) of OP2C and maps acquired at different sensor temperatures.

    fig. S7. Examples of spectral discrepancies (overall reflectance level and spectral slope) between the M3 OP2A and OP2C data sets.

    fig. S8. SSA spectra of anorthosite after continuum removal over the 2.5-μm to 3.8-μm-wavelength region for data acquired from results during the stepwise heating experiments.

    fig. S9. Continuum-removed reflectance spectra of MORB glass samples.

    table S1. Results from select pyrolysis measurements that were performed on lunar regolith, mineral separates, agglutinates, and rocks sampled from the Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 landing sites.

    table S2. SIMS measurements of water content (and δD values) for select Apollo samples that were used to generate Fig. 2.

    Reference (5864)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Text
    • fig. S1. The linear trends between ESPAT and weight % H2O for materials typifying the lunar surface.
    • fig. S2. Crystalline plagioclase exposures identified in the M3 data by Donaldson Hanna et al. (36) overlain on map of lunar surface water derived from the M3 data.
    • fig. S3. The water content (ESPAT) mapped by M3 at three different lunar local time and the respective acquisition time of M3 data.
    • fig. S4. Filtering of the M3 data due to spectral artifacts affecting bands 47 and 74.
    • fig. S5. Filtering of the M3 data by SNRI (see Methods for details).
    • fig. S6. The global water map (ESPAT) of OP2C and maps acquired at different sensor temperatures.
    • fig. S7. Examples of spectral discrepancies (overall reflectance level and spectral slope) between the M3 OP2A and OP2C data sets.
    • fig. S8. SSA spectra of anorthosite after continuum removal over the 2.5-μm to 3.8-μm-wavelength region for data acquired from results during the stepwise
      heating experiments.
    • fig. S9. Continuum-removed reflectance spectra of MORB glass samples.
    • table S1. Results from select pyrolysis measurements that were performed on lunar regolith, mineral separates, agglutinates, and rocks sampled from the Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 landing sites.
    • table S2. SIMS measurements of water content (and δD values) for select Apollo samples that were used to generate Fig. 2.
    • Reference (58–64)

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