How do lncRNAs regulate transcription?

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Science Advances  27 Sep 2017:
Vol. 3, no. 9, eaao2110
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao2110

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It has recently become apparent that RNA, itself the product of transcription, is a major regulator of the transcriptional process. In particular, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), which are so numerous in eukaryotes, function in many cases as transcriptional regulators. These RNAs function through binding to histone-modifying complexes, to DNA binding proteins (including transcription factors), and even to RNA polymerase II. In other cases, it is the act of lncRNA transcription rather than the lncRNA product that appears to be regulatory. We review recent progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms by which lncRNAs modulate gene expression and future opportunities in this research field.

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