Research ArticleGEOLOGY

The largest deep-ocean silicic volcanic eruption of the past century

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Science Advances  10 Jan 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 1, e1701121
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701121
  • Fig. 1 Location map of Havre volcano and NASA MODIS satellite imagery.

    (A) Location map of Havre volcano in the Kermadec arc, New Zealand. Open dots are locations of Kermadec arc volcanoes to the south of Havre. (B) NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite image taken at 01:26 UTC, 19 July 2012, ~21 hours after the onset of the pumice raft generation. A vapor plume is visible at the source of the raft; whether or not there were particles in the plume is unknown. The red dot is the location of Havre volcano.

  • Fig. 2 Two-dimensional surface roughness map and three-dimensional rendering of Havre submarine volcano.

    (A) Three-dimensional surface rendering of the Havre submarine caldera, view looking from the northeast. Lavas distributed on the southern margin of the caldera are labeled [see (B)]. The width of the caldera is 4.5 km. (B) Seafloor roughness, derived from the gridded AUV bathymetry by calculating the surface area in 3 × 3 m bins relative to a flat seafloor. As expected, the steep caldera walls show high roughness. The lavas and domes (outlined in red and labeled A to P) are distinguished by high roughness. The sediment at the lava flow front of lava C is wrinkled. A coarse deposit interpreted as the product of syneruptive mass wasting is located within the caldera extends north-northeast from the truncated edges of lavas G to I (MW in red). The widespread GP deposit has moderate roughness on the caldera floor and flanks and is outlined by solid pink lines. Areas within the GP deposit that are less rough are partially or wholly buried by ALB, and later deposits are derived from the collapse of dome O-P (dashed orange lines). Dashed yellow lines enclose parts of the GP deposits covered by syn- and post-eruption mass-wasting deposits inside the caldera.

  • Fig. 3 Seafloor products of the 2012 Havre eruption.

    Images taken from the forward-looking ROV cameras of lava, domes, and clastic deposits. Line in each image is 1 m in length. (A) GP clasts are predominantly meter-sized; the clast shown here is 6 m in diameter. (B) Meter-sized GP clasts are stacked more than four clasts high within the caldera, suggesting gentle settling to the seafloor from suspension. (C) GP clasts commonly have curviplanar surfaces and quenched margins with normal joints and breadcrusting. (D) Lava spine on dome O-P. (E) ALB deposit at 1.2 km from the inferred source vent (dome O-P). (F) AL deposit on top of a GP clast; inset shows the complex internal stratigraphy of this unit.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/1/e1701121/DC1

    fig. S1. MODIS Terra and Aqua satellite images of the region around Havre volcano collected between 18 and 19 July 2012 (UTC).

    fig. S2.1. AUV high-resolution bathymetry of Havre submarine volcano.

    fig. S2.2. Dive tracks for the AUV Sentry.

    fig. S2.3. ROV track lines.

    fig. S3. Detailed views of seafloor roughness.

    fig. S4. Clast density distributions from Havre and other Kermadec volcanoes.

    fig. S5. GP size with distance.

    fig. S6. Clast textures from seafloor GP and raft pumice.

    movie S1. GP retrieval from the seafloor.

    table S1A. X-ray fluorescence geochemical data of 2012 products.

    table S1B. X-ray fluorescence geochemical precision and accuracy data.

    table S2. Table of Havre lava volumes.

    table S3. Phenocryst assemblages and microlite populations of the GP and raft pumice from petrographic analysis.

    References (3537)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. MODIS Terra and Aqua satellite images of the region around Havre volcano collected between 18 and 19 July 2012 (UTC).
    • fig. S2.1. AUV high-resolution bathymetry of Havre submarine volcano.
    • fig. S2.2. Dive tracks for the AUV Sentry.
    • fig. S2.3. ROV track lines.
    • fig. S3. Detailed views of seafloor roughness.
    • fig. S4. Clast density distributions from Havre and other Kermadec volcanoes.
    • fig. S5. GP size with distance.
    • fig. S6. Clast textures from seafloor GP and raft pumice.
    • Legend for movie S1
    • table S1A. X-ray fluorescence geochemical data of 2012 products.
    • table S1B. X-ray fluorescence geochemical precision and accuracy data.
    • table S2. Table of Havre lava volumes.
    • table S3. Phenocryst assemblages and microlite populations of the GP and raft pumice from petrographic analysis.
    • References (35–37)

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • movie S1 (.mov format). GP retrieval from the seafloor.

    Files in this Data Supplement: