Electrically switchable metadevices via graphene

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Science Advances  05 Jan 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 1, eaao1749
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aao1749

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Metamaterials bring subwavelength resonating structures together to overcome the limitations of conventional materials. The realization of active metadevices has been an outstanding challenge that requires electrically reconfigurable components operating over a broad spectrum with a wide dynamic range. However, the existing capability of metamaterials is not sufficient to realize this goal. By integrating passive metamaterials with active graphene devices, we demonstrate a new class of electrically controlled active metadevices working in microwave frequencies. The fabricated active metadevices enable efficient control of both amplitude (>50 dB) and phase (>90°) of electromagnetic waves. In this hybrid system, graphene operates as a tunable Drude metal that controls the radiation of the passive metamaterials. Furthermore, by integrating individually addressable arrays of metadevices, we demonstrate a new class of spatially varying digital metasurfaces where the local dielectric constant can be reconfigured with applied bias voltages. In addition, we reconfigure resonance frequency of split-ring resonators without changing its amplitude by damping one of the two coupled metasurfaces via graphene. Our approach is general enough to implement various metamaterial systems that could yield new applications ranging from electrically switchable cloaking devices to adaptive camouflage systems.

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