Research ArticleECOLOGY

Fruit scent as an evolved signal to primate seed dispersal

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Science Advances  03 Oct 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 10, eaat4871
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat4871
  • Fig. 1 Shifts in fruit scent upon ripeness.

    (A) Scent increase ratio: changes in overall VOC emission upon ripeness. y axis is the ratio between the overall VOC emission of ripe and unripe fruits in a given species. The dashed line marks a ratio of 1, that is, no difference in emission between ripe and unripe fruits. Data presented are raw data, while statistical tests were conducted on log-transformed data to comply with the assumptions of the models. (B) Ripe-unripe scent dissimilarity: changes in chemical composition of fruit scent upon ripeness. Dissimilarity was calculated as the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index based on relative amounts of 389 VOCs. Asterisks denote significance at α < 0.05 in both a GLMM on n = 90 individuals and a two-tailed two-sample Welch t test on n = 30 species.

  • Fig. 2 A tanglegram of the model plants: Phylogeny versus ripe fruit chemical similarity.

    The strong dissimilarities between closely related taxa such as the congeneric Mussaenda, Oncostemum, and Ficus indicate a relatively low phylogenetic conservatism in VOC emission. (Left) Phylogeny of model plant species based on Zanne et al. (42). (Right) Cluster analysis of ripe fruits based on the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix, calculated on the relative amounts of 389 VOCs.

  • Fig. 3 The relationship between ripe-unripe scent dissimilarity and sniffing index in red-bellied lemurs (E. rubriventer).

    When choosing fruits, lemurs tend to rely on their sense of smell more when foraging on species in which the chemical distance between ripe and unripe fruits is larger. P value and adjusted R2 are from a linear model.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/10/eaat4871/DC1

    Fig. S1. The relationship between scent increase ratio and ripe-unripe dissimilarity.

    Fig. S2. The relationship between scent increase ratio and sniffing behavior.

    Table S1. VOCs identified in 90 fruit samples of 30 species.

    Table S2. Raw data, field season 2016.

    Table S3. Raw data, field season 2017.

    Table S4. Raw data, behavior.

    Movie S1. Female red-bellied lemur (E. rubriventer) feeding on Vondavenina fruits at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar.

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. The relationship between scent increase ratio and ripe-unripe dissimilarity.
    • Fig. S2. The relationship between scent increase ratio and sniffing behavior.
    • Legend for movie S1

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Table S1 (Microsoft Excel format). VOCs identified in 90 fruit samples of 30 species.
    • Table S2 (Microsoft Excel format). Raw data, field season 2016.
    • Table S3 (Microsoft Excel format). Raw data, field season 2017.
    • Table S4 (Microsoft Excel format). Raw data, behavior.
    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Female red-bellied lemur (E. rubriventer) feeding on Vondavenina fruits at Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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