Research ArticleANTHROPOLOGY

Symbolic use of marine shells and mineral pigments by Iberian Neandertals 115,000 years ago

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Science Advances  22 Feb 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 2, eaar5255
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aar5255
  • Fig. 1 Site setting.

    (A) The site seen from a breakwater in the Cartagena harbor. (B) Overview of the cave. Brecciated Pleistocene remnant before (C) and after (D) its 1985 excavation. The dotted circles in (C) and (D) indicate the position of the dated flowstone, clearly overlying the excavated deposit.

  • Fig. 2 Sampling.

    (A) Extant stratigraphic section. Zenithal (B) and frontal (C) views of the flowstone capping the excavated deposit. The rectangle in (A) denotes the area enlarged in (C). A 20-cm yellow ruler was used for scale in (B) and (C), in which the numbers denote the samples taken.

  • Fig. 3 Symbolic finds [after Zilhão et al. (12)].

    (A) Spondylus shell with remnants (indicated by the white square) of a pigmentatious compound mixing ground inclusions of hematite and pyrite in a red lepidocrocite basis. (B) Large lump of natrojarosite, a mineral whose only known archaeological use is in cosmetics. (C) Perforated Acanthocardia and Glycymeris shells (red hematite residues were found adhering to the inner side of the larger Glycymeris).

  • Fig. 4 Sample AVI 13-1c.

    (A) Sample piece AVI 13-1c after removal from flowstone section LS01 (12) at the interface between the flowstone and the underlying cemented sediment LS02 (figs. S2 and S4). Note the cemented sediment of the LS02 unit adhering to the bottom part of the sample. (B) Sample piece AVI 13-1c after cutting out a section for U-series subsampling (fig. S7D). (C) Piece on the left in (B) viewed from different angles. The red arrows indicate the boundary between the LS01 flowstone and the LS02 cemented sediment. The black square indicates where flowstone formed around a sediment particle.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/2/eaar5255/DC1

    Supplementary Materials and Methods

    Supplementary Text

    fig. S1. Map of the Iberian Peninsula.

    fig. S2. Cueva de los Aviones.

    fig. S3. Stratigraphic position of the LS01 flowstone.

    fig. S4. Sample AVI 13-1.

    fig. S5. Flowstone pieces AVI 13-1a, AVI 13-1b, and AVI 13c.

    fig. S6. Flowstone section LS01 (12) with position of drill cores AVI 13-2, AVI 13-3, and AVI 13-4.

    fig. S7. Flowstone sample AVI 13-1.

    fig. S8. Cross sections of drill core samples AVI 13-2, AVI 13-3, and AVI 13-4.

    fig. S9. Osmond type isochron diagrams for sample AVI 13-1c.

    fig. S10. Osmond type isochron diagrams for samples AVI 13-2, AVI 13-3, and AVI 13-4.

    fig. S11. Dating results for five individual samples taken from the thin carbonate layer AVI 13-1b, showing uncorrected and corrected results.

    fig. S12. Distance-age results for flowstone piece AVI 13-1.

    fig. S13. Basal ages for samples AVI 13-1, AVI 13-2, AVI 13-3, and AVI 13-4.

    table S1. U-series results for AVI 13-1, AVI 13-2, AVI 13-3, and AVI 13-4.

    References (3338)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Materials and Methods
    • Supplementary Text
    • fig. S1. Map of the Iberian Peninsula.
    • fig. S2. Cueva de los Aviones.
    • fig. S3. Stratigraphic position of the LS01 flowstone.
    • fig. S4. Sample AVI 13-1.
    • fig. S5. Flowstone pieces AVI 13-1a, AVI 13-1b, and AVI 13c.
    • fig. S6. Flowstone section LS01 (12) with position of drill cores AVI 13-2, AVI 13-3, and AVI 13-4.
    • fig. S7. Flowstone sample AVI 13-1.
    • fig. S8. Cross sections of drill core samples AVI 13-2, AVI 13-3, and AVI 13-4.
    • fig. S9. Osmond type isochron diagrams for sample AVI 13-1c.
    • fig. S10. Osmond type isochron diagrams for samples AVI 13-2, AVI 13-3, and AVI 13-4.
    • fig. S11. Dating results for five individual samples taken from the thin carbonate layer AVI 13-1b, showing uncorrected and corrected results.
    • fig. S12. Distance-age results for flowstone piece AVI 13-1.
    • fig. S13. Basal ages for samples AVI 13-1, AVI 13-2, AVI 13-3, and AVI 13-4.
    • table S1. U-series results for AVI 13-1, AVI 13-2, AVI 13-3, and AVI 13-4.
    • References (33–38)

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