Research ArticlePALEONTOLOGY

Differences in extinction rates drove modern biogeographic patterns of tropical marine biodiversity

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Science Advances  04 Apr 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 4, eaaq1508
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaq1508
  • Fig. 1 Changes in Caribbean cheilostome species richness over the past 18 Ma.

    Observed counts (black squares), Chao2 estimates (blue triangles), and resampled estimates (green dots) of cheilostome species diversity over geological time for all colony growth forms combined and for encrusting, erect, and free-living only.

  • Fig. 2 Neogene-Recent histories of Caribbean cheilostome bryozoan colony growth forms.

    Results are shown as proportional abundances. “Recent” refers to the proportions of species present in our fossil data sets that are still living today.

  • Fig. 3 Measures of cheilostome taxonomic turnover and sampling intensity in the Caribbean for 1-Ma time intervals for the past 18 Ma.

    (A) Range-through species richness (in green, the number of species effectively found in each 1-Ma time interval) and numbers of samples, (B) numbers of first and last occurrences in each sampled million year interval, (C) origination, and (D) extinction rates per colony growth form (black, encrusting; red, erect; blue, free-living) per million year subinterval.

  • Fig. 4 Observed, Chao2, and resampled estimated measures of cheilostome species diversity in the middle-late Miocene (16 to 5 Ma ago) in Indonesia (IND) and the Caribbean (CAR).

    Results are presented for all colony growth forms combined and for encrusting, erect, and free-living only.

  • Fig. 5 Diversity of cheilostome bryozoan species for the middle-late Miocene for Indonesia and the Caribbean.

    Cumulative collection curves are for the middle-late Miocene for all colony growth forms combined and for encrusting, erect, and free-living only.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/4/eaaq1508/DC1

    fig. S1. Diversity of Caribbean cheilostome bryozoan species for four time intervals from the early Miocene to the Pleistocene.

    fig. S2. Stratigraphic ranges of the 285 Neogene Caribbean cheilostome bryozoan species included in our data sets.

    data set S1. Diversity and abundance of cheilostome bryozoans in the Miocene Chipola Formation and the DR.

    data set S2. TU and DR Miocene samples.

    data set S3. Diversity and abundance of cheilostome bryozoans in the Miocene of Panama.

    data set S4. PPP Miocene samples.

    data set S5. Diversity and abundance of cheilostome bryozoans in the Pliocene of Panama.

    data set S6. PPP Pliocene samples.

    data set S7. Diversity and abundance of cheilostome bryozoans in the Pleistocene of Panama.

    data set S8. PPP Pleistocene samples.

    data set S9. Diversity and abundance of cheilostome bryozoans in the Miocene of East Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    data set S10. Miocene samples from East Kalimantan.

    data set S11. Extant species.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Diversity of Caribbean cheilostome bryozoan species for four time intervals from the early Miocene to the Pleistocene.
    • fig. S2. Stratigraphic ranges of the 285 Neogene Caribbean cheilostome bryozoan species included in our data sets.
    • Legends for data sets S1 to S11

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • data set S1 (Microsoft Excel format). Diversity and abundance of cheilostome bryozoans in the Miocene Chipola Formation and the DR.
    • data set S2 (Microsoft Excel format). TU and DR Miocene samples.
    • data set S3 (Microsoft Excel format). Diversity and abundance of cheilostome bryozoans in the Miocene of Panama.
    • data set S4 (Microsoft Excel format). PPP Miocene samples.
    • data set S5 (Microsoft Excel format). Diversity and abundance of cheilostome bryozoans in the Pliocene of Panama.
    • data set S6 (Microsoft Excel format). PPP Pliocene samples.
    • data set S7 (Microsoft Excel format). Diversity and abundance of cheilostome bryozoans in the Pleistocene of Panama.
    • data set S8 (Microsoft Excel format). PPP Pleistocene samples.
    • data set S9 (Microsoft Excel format). Diversity and abundance of cheilostome bryozoans in the Miocene of East Kalimantan, Indonesia.
    • data set S10 (Microsoft Excel format). Miocene samples from East Kalimantan.
    • data set S11 (Microsoft Excel format). Extant species.

    Download Data sets S1 to S11

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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