Research ArticleNEUROSCIENCE

A cerebellar adaptation to uncertain inputs

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Science Advances  30 May 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 5, eaap9660
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aap9660

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Noise and variability are inherent and unavoidable features of neural processing. Despite this physiological challenge, brain systems function well, suggesting the existence of adaptations that cope with noise. We report a novel adaptation that the cerebellum implements to maintain correct responses in the face of ambiguous inputs. We found that under these conditions, the cerebellum used a probabilistic binary choice: Although the probability of behavioral response gradually increased or decreased depending on the degree of similarity between current and trained inputs, the size of response remained constant. That way the cerebellum kept responses adaptive to trained input corrupted by noise while minimizing false responses to novel stimuli. Recordings and analysis of Purkinje cells activity showed that the binary choice is made in the cerebellar cortex. Results from large-scale simulation suggest that internal feedback from cerebellar nucleus back to cerebellar cortex plays a critical role in implementation of binary choice.

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