Research ArticleSOCIAL SCIENCES

Prepublication disclosure of scientific results: Norms, competition, and commercial orientation

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Science Advances  16 May 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 5, eaar2133
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aar2133
  • Table 1 Ordered logit results.

    OpenExch, open exchange is practiced in my field (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); Feedback, disclosing leads to valuable feedback (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); Acknowl, researchers use the results of others without acknowledgement (1 to 5, 5 = strongly disagree); ResCommer, choose research topics with commercial potential (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); LStartup, log of number of startups with respondent as founder or member, scientific advisory group; LPatentAp, log of number of patent applications; DIndustry, indicator equal to 1 if respondent has industry-funded research in the past 3 years; CompOverall, perception of overall competition (1 to 5, 5 = very competitive); CompPub, perception of competition to publish or present new results (1 to 5, 5 = very competitive); CompGovFnd, perception of competition for government research funding (1 to 5, 5 = very competitive); CompStudents, perception of competition for students or post docs (1 to 5, 5 = very competitive); ResFunded, choose research depending on how likely to get funded (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); HighEsteem, first to come up with a result is highly esteemed by peers (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); GrpWW, number of competing groups worldwide (capped at 51); GrpWWTrust, number of competing groups worldwide with trusted colleagues; GrpWWCollab, number of competing groups worldwide with collaborators; DetectEasy, easy to detect failure to acknowledge (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); ResLeader, my research group is considered to be among the leaders in the field (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); Lpubs, log of number of publications in the past 5 years; Lcites, log of number of citations in the past 5 years; NSF_DFG, indicator = 1 if NSF or DFG funding; DFG, Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the German Research Foundation; NIH_EC, indicator = 1 if NIH or EC funding; EC, European Commission; OtherGovFnd, indicator = 1 if other government funding; OtherFnd, indicator = 1 if funding other than government or industry; ResBasic, my research is basic (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); ResInterd, my research area is interdisciplinary (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); ResRealW, my research is driven by real-world problems, with or without commercial potential (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); ResReput, my reputation among academics is important to me (1 to 5, 5 = strongly agree); Assistant, indicator = 1 if assistant professor; Associate, indicator =1 if associate professor; Male, indicator = 1 if male; Age, respondent age; AgeSq, square of age; NumGroup, number of full-time researchers in research group; NumReport, number of researchers who report directly to respondent; Migrant, indicator = 1 if not working in country of birth; BirthDevelop, indicator = 1 if birth country developed.

    Part aPart b
    Odds ratiot statisticPOdds ratiot statisticP
    NormsOpenExch1.1082.790.0051.1032.760.006
    Feedback1.2485.140.0001.2505.350.000
    Acknowl1.0953.220.0011.0983.430.001
    CommercialResCommer0.779−8.130.0000.779−8.40.000
    LStartup0.890−1.370.1700.869−1.700.089
    LPatentAp0.762−5.480.0000.770−5.460.000
    DIndustry0.760−3.390.0010.779−3.200.001
    CompetitionCompOverall*1.0070.140.887
    CompPub0.845−3.800.0000.851−4.880.000
    CompGovFnd1.0701.570.1161.0842.060.039
    CompStudents*1.0200.580.559
    ResFunded0.895−3.570.0000.889−3.960.000
    HighEsteem0.872−3.290.0010.876−3.310.001
    GrpWW0.992−3.790.0000.993−3.660.000
    OtherGrpWWTrust1.0447.180.0001.0467.510.000
    GrpWWCollab0.973−2.420.0150.970−2.770.006
    DetectEasy*1.0000.010.995
    ResLeader1.1153.070.0021.0962.830.005
    Lpubs*1.0140.200.845
    Lcites*0.987−0.330.739
    NSF_DFG1.1972.580.011.1982.710.007
    NIH_EC*0.965−0.470.638
    OtherGovFnd0.862−2.210.0270.888−1.840.066
    OtherFnd*0.995−0.080.936
    ResBasic1.0421.540.1231.0471.820.068
    ResInterd*1.0080.220.826
    ResRealW1.0561.830.0671.0612.10.036
    ResReput*0.998−0.040.965
    Assistant0.685−2.960.0030.678−3.270.001
    Associate0.869−1.570.1170.842−2.030.043
    Male1.0791.060.2911.0510.710.475
    Age0.964−1.400.1620.958−1.660.096
    AgeSq1.0001.470.1421.0001.740.081
    NumGroup*1.0020.650.515
    NumReport*1.0020.520.606
    Migrant0.860−1.860.0630.859−2.270.023
    BirthDevelop*1.0580.480.628
    SumResAreas1.0351.340.1811.0321.420.155
    USSample1.7104.910.0001.6935.050.000
    Field fixed effectsYesYes
    Number obs42474445
    Pseudo R-sq0.0840.082

    *Variable is dropped from original regression due to t statistic less than 1 in absolute value.

    Supplementary Materials

    • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/5/eaar2133/DC1

      Supplementary Text

      section S1. Disclosing type and publication fields

      section S2. Construction and summary statistics for variables of ordered logit

      table S1. Disclosing: Percentage of respondents.

      table S2. Summary statistics.

      table S3. The practice of science.

      table S4. Perceptions of competition.

      table S5. Characteristics of research.

      table S6. Competing groups worldwide.

      fig. S1. Disclosing by field of publication.

      fig. S2. Average standardized NCC values.

      fig. S3. Tests of differences in fig. S2 averages.

      fig. S4. Other types of disclosing.

    • Supplementary Materials

      This PDF file includes:

      • Supplementary Text
      • section S1. Disclosing type and publication fields
      • section S2. Construction and summary statistics for variables of ordered logit
      • table S1. Disclosing: Percentage of respondents.
      • table S2. Summary statistics.
      • table S3. The practice of science.
      • table S4. Perceptions of competition.
      • table S5. Characteristics of research.
      • table S6. Competing groups worldwide.
      • fig. S1. Disclosing by field of publication.
      • fig. S2. Average standardized NCC values.
      • fig. S3. Tests of differences in fig. S2 averages.
      • fig. S4. Other types of disclosing.

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