Research ArticleAPPLIED ECOLOGY

DNA from lake sediments reveals long-term ecosystem changes after a biological invasion

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Science Advances  09 May 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 5, eaar4292
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aar4292
  • Fig. 1 Lake La Poule.

    Location (A), map (B), and pictures (C) of the main landscape features of the watershed. F.L., Fougères Lake; P.L., La Poule Lake ; m.a.s.l., meters above sea level.

  • Fig. 2 Data from core POU14P1.

    (A) Photograph and grain size contour plot. The color scale refers to the abundance in percentage of each grain-size class, with the less abundant in blue and the most abundant in red. (B) LOI550 (organic matter) and NCIR, (C) 210Pbex activity, (D) 137Cs activity, and (E) the age model for the upper 26 cm. MWP and BWP correspond, respectively, to maximum and beginning of nuclear weapon peak in the southern hemisphere.

  • Fig. 3 Temporal variation of biological and sedimentological proxies.

    (A) accumulation rate of spores of coprophilous fungi (Sporormiella spp.; influx), occurrence of Podospora spp. (P), and multicellular ascospores of Sporormiella (*). (B) Rabbit sedDNA. (C) sedDNA of plants (proportion). (D) Erosion rate. Dashed lines represent the abrupt changes detected by regression tree and breakpoint analysis.

  • Fig. 4 Ecological variation of plant communities through time.

    (A) Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) representing the similarity of communities from sediment samples from different periods. (B) Constrained RDA showing the relationship between the proxies of rabbit abundance (sedDNA and Sporormiella) and the abundance of different plant taxa. Taxa with negative scores along the first RDA axis have negative association with rabbit abundance.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/5/eaar4292/DC1

    appendix S1. The Kerguelen Islands: Historical information on rabbit introduction.

    appendix S2. Supplementary results.

    appendix S3. Amplification of plant and mammal taxa using the P007 and g-h primers.

    table S1. Detection of NPPs in the analyzed sediment samples.

    table S2. Detection of sedDNA in the analyzed sediment samples.

    table S3. Estimation of breakpoints in the erosion rate performed using a dynamic programming algorithm (59).

    table S4. Average climatic variables during the period 1912–2013, calculated on the basis of the 2014 version of the University of Delaware time series of monthly global gridded high-resolution station data (60).

    table S5. Match between primers and sequences from plants and mammals living in Kerguelen.

    fig. S1. Data from core POU14P1 with photograph, grain size median, LOI550 (organic matter), and NCIR.

    fig. S2. Age-depth model for the upper 65 cm of the sediment core POU14P1 based on radiocarbon (blue) and short-lived radionuclides derived ages (green).

    fig. S3. Constrained RDA, showing the relationship between the proxies of rabbit abundance (sedDNA and Sporormiella) and the abundance of different plant taxa.

    fig. S4. Temporal variation of the accumulation rate of spores of coprophilous fungi (Sporormiella sp.), measured as concentration (spores/cm3).

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • appendix S1. The Kerguelen Islands: Historical information on rabbit introduction.
    • appendix S2. Supplementary results.
    • appendix S3. Amplification of plant and mammal taxa using the P007 and g-h primers.
    • table S1. Detection of NPPs in the analyzed sediment samples.
    • table S2. Detection of sedDNA in the analyzed sediment samples.
    • table S3. Estimation of breakpoints in the erosion rate performed using a dynamic programming algorithm (59).
    • table S4. Average climatic variables during the period 1912–2013, calculated on the basis of the 2014 version of the University of Delaware time series of monthly global gridded high-resolution station data (60).
    • table S5. Match between primers and sequences from plants and mammals living in Kerguelen.
    • fig. S1. Data from core POU14P1 with photograph, grain size median, LOI550 (organic matter), and NCIR.
    • fig. S2. Age-depth model for the upper 65 cm of the sediment core POU14P1 based on radiocarbon (blue) and short-lived radionuclides derived ages (green).
    • fig. S3. Constrained RDA, showing the relationship between the proxies of rabbit abundance (sedDNA and Sporormiella) and the abundance of different plant taxa.
    • fig. S4. Temporal variation of the accumulation rate of spores of coprophilous fungi (Sporormiella sp.), measured as concentration (spores/cm3).

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