Research ArticleORGANISMAL BIOLOGY

Success of cuckoo catfish brood parasitism reflects coevolutionary history and individual experience of their cichlid hosts

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Science Advances  02 May 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 5, eaar4380
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aar4380
  • Fig. 1 Short-term rejection rate of parasite eggs.

    The proportion (in percentage) of clutches with parasite egg rejection 24 hours after experimental infection with foreign eggs in sympatric hosts parasitized by cuckoo catfish (A) or heterospecific cichlid (B) and in allopatric hosts parasitized by the cuckoo catfish (C). Females individually naïve to brood parasitism (white bars) and experienced host females (black bars) are distinguished. Asterisk denotes statistically significant (P < 0.05) difference between rejection rates of cuckoo catfish eggs after experimental parasitism of sympatric and allopatric host females.

  • Fig. 2 Short-term rejection rate of own eggs following experimental parasitism.

    The proportion (in percentage) of clutches with own egg rejection 24 hours after experimental infection with foreign eggs in sympatric hosts artificially parasitized by cuckoo catfish (A), heterospecific cichlid (B), and in sham controls (handling only) (C), and in allopatric hosts parasitized by cuckoo catfish (D) and in sham controls (E). Females individually naïve to brood parasitism (white bars) and experienced host females (black bars) are distinguished. Asterisks denote statistically significant (P < 0.05) difference in the pairwise contrasts between naïve and experienced host females.

  • Fig. 3 The success of parasite broods over the duration of brood care.

    The proportion of clutches with at least a single juvenile catfish surviving to independence following experimental parasitism in sympatric (A) and allopatric (B) hosts. Females individually naïve to brood parasitism (white bars) and experienced host females (black bars) are distinguished. Asterisk denotes statistically significant (P < 0.05) difference in the contrast between sympatric and allopatric hosts.

  • Fig. 4 The success of host broods over the duration of brood care.

    The proportion of clutches with at least a single host juvenile surviving to independence following experimental parasitism (black bars) and in control broods (white bars) in sympatric hosts that were individually naïve to cuckoo catfish parasitism (A) or experienced host females (B), and in allopatric naïve (C) and experienced (D) hosts. Asterisks denote statistically significant (P < 0.05) difference in the pairwise contrasts between host brood success after experimental parasitism and the control treatment.

  • Table 1 Prevalence of cuckoo catfish parasitism in host cichlid species during natural spawning in species-specific experimental aquaria.
    SpeciesLake of originEvolutionary history with cuckoo catfishPrevalenceBroods (n)
    Haplochromis sp. 44VictoriaAllopatric63.0%59
    Haplochromis aeneocolorGeorgeAllopatric22.0%235
    Copadichromis borleyiMalawiAllopatric17.0%6
    Simochromis diagrammaTanganyikaSympatric5.5%54

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/5/eaar4380/DC1

    fig. S1. The cost of experimental parasitism in terms of the size of host own brood.

    table S1. Full analysis of variance (ANOVA) table for a Bernoulli GLM to test the roles of evolutionary experience and individual experience on rejection of parasite eggs over the first 24 hours.

    table S2. The results of a Bernoulli GLM to test the roles of evolutionary experience and individual experience on parasite brood survival over the incubation period.

    table S3. Full ANOVA table of a Bernoulli GLM testing the roles of parasite treatment, evolutionary experience, and individual experience on host brood survival over the incubation period.

    table S4. The results of a Bernoulli GLM to test the roles of evolutionary experience and individual experience on rejection of parasite eggs over the first 2 hours.

    table S5. The results of a Bernoulli GLM to test the roles of evolutionary experience and individual experience on rejection of own eggs following experimental parasitism over the first 2 hours.

    table S6. The number of eggs rejected over 2 and 24 hours by experimental females.

    table S7. The results of a bivariate GLM to test the roles of evolutionary experience and individual experience on rejection of parasite eggs over the first 24 hours.

    movie S1. Undisturbed spawning of sympatric cichlid hosts, Simochromis diagramma.

    movie S2. Spawning of sympatric host Simochromis diagramma with repeated cuckoo catfish intrusions and spawning.

    movie S3. Undisturbed spawning of allopatric host Haplochromis aeneaocolor followed by cuckoo catfish intrusions and spawning.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. The cost of experimental parasitism in terms of the size of host own brood.
    • table S1. Full analysis of variance (ANOVA) table for a Bernoulli GLM to test the roles of evolutionary experience and individual experience on rejection of parasite eggs over the first 24 hours.
    • table S2. The results of a Bernoulli GLM to test the roles of evolutionary experience and individual experience on parasite brood survival over the incubation period.
    • table S3. Full ANOVA table of a Bernoulli GLM testing the roles of parasite treatment, evolutionary experience, and individual experience on host brood survival over the incubation period.
    • table S4. The results of a Bernoulli GLM to test the roles of evolutionary experience and individual experience on rejection of parasite eggs over the first 2 hours.
    • table S5. The results of a Bernoulli GLM to test the roles of evolutionary experience and individual experience on rejection of own eggs following experimental parasitism over the first 2 hours.
    • table S6. The number of eggs rejected over 2 and 24 hours by experimental females.
    • table S7. The results of a bivariate GLM to test the roles of evolutionary experience and individual experience on rejection of parasite eggs over the first 24 hours.

    Download PDF

    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • movie S1 (.mp4 format). Undisturbed spawning of sympatric cichlid hosts, Simochromis diagramma.
    • movie S2 (.mov format). Spawning of sympatric host Simochromis diagramma with repeated cuckoo catfish intrusions and spawning.
    • movie S3 (.mp4 format). Undisturbed spawning of allopatric host Haplochromis aeneaocolor followed by cuckoo catfish intrusions and spawning.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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