Research ArticleENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

Corporate control and global governance of marine genetic resources

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Science Advances  06 Jun 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 6, eaar5237
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aar5237
  • Fig. 1 Growing commercial interest in MGRs.

    Cumulative number over time (1988–2017) of (A) marine species with patent sequences and (B) patent sequences from marine species.

  • Fig. 2 Percentage of patents with international protection associated with MGRs that were registered over the period 1988–2017 by BASF, all other companies (n = 220), universities (n = 78), and other actors (n = 26; including governmental bodies, individuals, hospitals, and nonprofit research institutes).
  • Fig. 3 Timeline of the number of marine genetic sequences associated with claims for international patent protection.

    Note that registering patents through the Patent Cooperation Treaty entails a roughly 3-year process from the date of filing. A distinction is made between contracting parties to the Nagoya Protocol (n = 20; solid blue line) and non-signatories (n = 10; dashed gray line). Key stages in the negotiations, adoption, and entry into force of the Nagoya Protocol are also included. The protocol remained opened for signature between February 2011 and February 2012 but mostly was not passed into law in national parliaments until 2015 (for example, EU, UK, and Germany).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/6/eaar5237/DC1

    Basics of gene patents

    fig. S1. Number of marine species and marine sequences associated with patents.

    fig. S2. Top 30 largest patent holders.

    data file S1. Raw data, species data, patent registration data, owner data, and data aggregations section (Excel file).

    References (4561)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Basics of gene patents
    • fig. S1. Number of marine species and marine sequences associated with patents.
    • fig. S2. Top 30 largest patent holders.
    • References (45–61)

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • data file S1. Raw data, species data, patent registration data, owner data, and data aggregations section (Excel file).

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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