Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

A pyrolyzed polyacrylonitrile/selenium disulfide composite cathode with remarkable lithium and sodium storage performances

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Science Advances  08 Jun 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 6, eaat1687
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat1687
  • Fig. 1 Morphology and structure characterizations of pPAN/SeS2.

    (A to C) Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, (D to F) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, (G) dark-field TEM image, and corresponding elemental mappings of pPAN/SeS2. (H) SEM and TEM images of powder-pPAN/SeS2. (I) TGA curves of SeS2, pPAN, pPAN/SeS2, and powder-pPAN/SeS2. Inset of (A) shows the energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) plot of pPAN/SeS2.

  • Fig. 2 Characterizations of pPAN/SeS2 and the control samples.

    (A) X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, (B and C) FTIR, and (D) Raman spectra of pPAN/SeS2 and the control samples (SeS2, PAN, and pPAN). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of (E) C 1s and (F) S 2p/Se 3p for pPAN/SeS2. a.u., arbitrary units.

  • Fig. 3 Electrochemical evaluation of pPAN/S, pPAN/SeS2, and pPAN/Se.

    Comparisons of (A) typical voltage profiles at 0.5 A g−1, and (B) CV curves at 0.2 mV s−1 of pPAN/SeS2, pPAN/S, and pPAN/Se. (C) CV curves of pPAN/SeS2 from 0.2 to 1.2 mV s−1. (D) Comparison of b values in the cathodic (bc) and anodic (ba) scans from 0.2 to 1.2 mV s−1 of different groups. b-value determination based on logarithmic peak currents versus scan rate. Voltage profiles (E) and the Li-ion diffusion coefficients (F) of pPAN/SeS2, pPAN/S, and pPAN/Se obtained via the GITT technique during discharge/charge processes.

  • Fig. 4 Electrochemical performance of Li-SeS2 battery.

    (A) Cycle property at 0.5 A g−1. (B) Voltage profiles during cycle test. (C) Voltage profiles at various current densities from 0.2 to 5 A g−1 of pPAN/SeS2. Comparisons of (D) rate performance from 0.2 to 5 A g−1, (E) energy density, and (F) power density of pPAN/Se, pPAN/SeS2, and pPAN/S. (G) Prolonged cycle life at 4 A g−1, and (H) cycling property at 0.2 A g−1 with high areal mass loading of pPAN/SeS2 for Li storage.

  • Fig. 5 Electrochemical performance of RT Na-SeS2 battery.

    Comparisons of (A) cycle stabilities at 0.1 A g−1, (B) typical voltage profiles, (C) and rate performances between pPAN/S and pPAN/SeS2. (D) Voltage profiles at various current densities from 0.1 to 5 A g−1. (E) Prolonged cycle life of pPAN/SeS2 for Na storage.

  • Fig. 6 Characterizations of pPAN/SeS2 after cycling tests.

    SEM images of (A) fresh and (B and C) 100 times cycled pPAN/SeS2 electrode films. SEM images of (D) separator and (E) Li anode disassembled from the pPAN/SeS2 cells after 100 cycles. Insets of (D), (E), and (F) are EDX plots of separator, Li anode, and cathode films, respectively. (G and H) TEM images and (I) elemental mappings of pPAN/SeS2 after 100 cycles for Li storage.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/6/eaat1687/DC1

    fig. S1. Schematic illustrations of the chemical structure and synthesis method.

    fig. S2. EDX mappings of pPAN/SeS2.

    fig. S3. N2 sorption isotherms of multichannel pPAN/SeS2 fibers and pPAN/SeS2 powder.

    fig. S4. Morphology characterizations.

    fig. S5. TGA curves of pPAN/S and pPAN/Se.

    fig. S6. The active material contents of various PAN-supported or microporous carbon-supported composites for Li-S or Li-Se/S batteries.

    fig. S7. EIS of pPAN/S, pPAN/SeS2, and pPAN/Se.

    fig. S8. Comparisons of capacity utilization and energy density for Li storage.

    fig. S9. CV curves from 0.2 to 1.2 mV s−1.

    fig. S10. Rate performances.

    fig. S11. Comparison of normalized capacities.

    fig. S12. CV curves and voltage profiles of pPAN/SeS2 for Na storage.

    fig. S13. Comparisons of RT Na-S and Na-Se/S batteries.

    References (5463)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • fig. S1. Schematic illustrations of the chemical structure and synthesis method.
    • fig. S2. EDX mappings of pPAN/SeS2.
    • fig. S3. N2 sorption isotherms of multichannel pPAN/SeS2 fibers and pPAN/SeS2 powder.
    • fig. S4. Morphology characterizations.
    • fig. S5. TGA curves of pPAN/S and pPAN/Se.
    • fig. S6. The active material contents of various PAN-supported or microporous carbon-supported composites for Li-S or Li-Se/S batteries.
    • fig. S7. EIS of pPAN/S, pPAN/SeS2, and pPAN/Se.
    • fig. S8. Comparisons of capacity utilization and energy density for Li storage.
    • fig. S9. CV curves from 0.2 to 1.2 mV s−1.
    • fig. S10. Rate performances.
    • fig. S11. Comparison of normalized capacities.
    • fig. S12. CV curves and voltage profiles of pPAN/SeS2 for Na storage.
    • fig. S13. Comparisons of RT Na-S and Na-Se/S batteries.
    • References (54–63)

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