Research ArticleChemistry

Practical water production from desert air

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Science Advances  08 Jun 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 6, eaat3198
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat3198
  • Fig. 1 WHC for practical water production under natural cooling and ambient sunlight.

    (A) The WHC is composed of the capture and collecting cycles. (B) The capture cycle is defined by the sorption isotherm of the MOF, and several prerequisites for high-performance water harvesting materials can be established therefrom. A type IV or type V isotherm with minimal or no hysteresis, a steep uptake below 25% RH, a high capture capacity (ωcap) below 35% RH, and a significant shift of the inflection point for isotherms recorded at different temperatures are ideal. (C) The collecting cycle is defined by the psychrometric chart. During the release of captured water, the air is humidified and heated (ii→iii). Natural convection transports the hot humid air to the condenser, cooling it below its dew point (iii→iv). Concomitant condensation yields liquid water and dehumidified air. The collecting cycle can continue until the humidity ratio is too low for the dew point to be reached. a.u., arbitrary units.

  • Fig. 2 Isotherms of MOF-801 and design of the MOF-based water harvester for water production from desert air.

    (A) Water sorption isotherms (adsorption, filled symbols; desorption, open symbols) of MOF-801 and MOF-801/G at 15°C (blue), 25°C (gray), and 85°C (red). In comparison to previously reported isotherms for MOF-801, a shift of the inflection point to higher relative pressures, a lower maximum capacity, and hysteresis were observed. These findings are related to a high degree of single crystallinity of the material (23). Blending MOF-801 with graphite led to a decrease of the gravimetric capacity corresponding to the added weight, while the general shape of the isotherm was fully retained. (B) Schematic of the water harvester consisting of a water sorption unit and a case. During the night, the cover of the case is opened, allowing the MOF to be saturated with moisture from desert air. During the day, the case is sealed to create a closed system. Humid hot air flows from the MOF to the condenser and is cooled down by heat rejection to the surroundings. When the dew point is reached, condensation occurs, and liquid water collects at the bottom of the case.

  • Fig. 3 Water production and temperature, RH, and solar flux profiles.

    (A) Photographs of the condenser showing (i) the formation of droplets (ii) flowing to make puddles (inset, water produced per day-and-night desert cycle). (B) Humidity and temperature profiles acquired during testing in the desert on 22 October 2017 in Scottsdale, AZ, USA. Temperature and humidity sensors were placed at different positions within the water harvester: at the bottom (orange) and top of the condenser (blue) and at the surface of (red) and in the MOF powder (magenta). The solar flux was recorded using a pyranometer mounted on the reflector. Ambient temperature and RH were monitored near the water harvester, and the ambient dew temperature (light blue) was calculated from these data. (C) Comparison of humidity and temperature profiles acquired under ambient solar flux during testing in the desert and under laboratory conditions using low (558 W m−2) and high (792 W m−2) fluxes. The origin represents when the complete surface of MOF-801/G was exposed to artificial or ambient solar radiation, for the laboratory experiments and the desert test, respectively.

  • Fig. 4 Next-generation MOF with increased productivity.

    (A) Crystal structure of MOF-303 built from rod-like Al(OH)(-COO)2 SBUs linked by HPDC linkers into an extended framework structure (xhh topology) with a 1D pore system. Gray, C; green, N; red, O; blue polyhedra, Al. (B) Water sorption isotherms for MOF-303/G at 15°C (blue), 25°C (gray), and 85°C (red). (C) Comparison of parameters defining the efficiency and productivity of the water harvester. Gray and orange bars represent measurements under low and high fluxes, respectively.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/6/eaat3198/DC1

    section S1. Materials and analytical techniques for MOF synthesis and analysis

    section S2. MOF-801 synthesis and characterization

    section S3. MOF-801/G preparation and characterization

    section S4. MOF-303 synthesis and characterization

    section S5. MOF-303/G preparation and characterization

    section S6. Comparison of sorbents

    section S7. Water harvester

    section S8. Data acquisition and sensors

    section S9. WHC under laboratory conditions

    section S10. Harvesting experiments at Scottsdale, AZ, under desert conditions

    section S11. Chemical analysis of collected water samples and MOF chemical stability

    section S12. Movies of the water production experiment

    fig. S1. PXRD pattern of activated MOF-801.

    fig. S2. SEM image of activated MOF-801.

    fig. S3. SEM and EDS images of MOF-801.

    fig. S4. N2 isotherm of activated MOF-801 recorded at 77 K.

    fig. S5. Water sorption isotherms of pre–scaled-up MOF-801 sample (black, this work), MOF-801-P (red), and MOF-801-SC (blue) (7).

    fig. S6. Water sorption isotherms of pre–scaled-up MOF-801 recorded at different temperatures.

    fig. S7. Characteristic curves for activated pre–scaled-up MOF-801 determined using Eqs. 2 and 3 based on the sorption isotherms measured at different temperatures.

    fig. S8. Isosteric heat of adsorption (black) and water sorption isotherm at 25°C (red) for activated MOF-801.

    fig. S9. Experimental water sorption isotherm for activated scaled-up MOF-801 recorded at 25°C and calculated water sorption isotherms at 15 and 85°C.

    fig. S10. PXRD pattern of the graphite sample.

    fig. S11. PXRD pattern of activated sample of MOF-801/G.

    fig. S12. SEM and EDS images of MOF-801/G.

    fig. S13. N2 isotherm of the activated MOF-801/G recorded at 77 K.

    fig. S14. Experimental water sorption isotherm for MOF-801/G at 25°C and calculated water sorption isotherms at 15° and 85°C.

    fig. S15. Comparison of water sorption isotherms for scaled-up MOF-801 and MOF-801/G at 25°C.

    fig. S16. Asymmetric unit in the single-crystal structure of MOF-303 (atoms are shown isotropically).

    fig. S17. PXRD pattern of activated MOF-303.

    fig. S18. SEM image of activated MOF-303.

    fig. S19. SEM and EDS images of MOF-303.

    fig. S20. N2 isotherm of activated scaled-up MOF-303 at 77 K.

    fig. S21. Water sorption isotherm of pre–scaled-up activated MOF-303 recorded at 25°C.

    fig. S22. Cycling experiment of MOF-303.

    fig. S23. Water sorption isotherms of activated scaled-up MOF-303 at different temperatures.

    fig. S24. One hundred fifty cycles of RH swing cycling of scaled-up activated MOF-303 at 25°C in a TGA.

    fig. S25. Characteristic curves determined using Eqs. 2 and 3 based on sorption isotherms for MOF-303 measured at different temperatures.

    fig. S26. Isosteric heat of adsorption (black) versus water sorption isotherm at 25°C (red) for activated MOF-303.

    fig. S27. Experimental water sorption isotherm for activated scaled-up MOF-303 at 25°C and calculated water isotherms at 15° and 85°C.

    fig. S28. PXRD pattern of activated sample of MOF-303/G.

    fig. S29. SEM and EDS images of MOF-303/G.

    fig. S30. N2 isotherm of activated MOF-303/G at 77 K.

    fig. S31. Experimental water sorption isotherm for MOF-303/G at 25°C and calculated water isotherms at 15° and 85°C.

    fig. S32. Comparison of water sorption isotherms of scaled-up MOF-303 and MOF-303/G at 25°C.

    fig. S33. PXRD pattern of zeolite 13X.

    fig. S34. N2 isotherm of zeolite 13X recorded at 77 K.

    fig. S35. Experimental water sorption isotherm for zeolite 13X at 25°C and calculated water isotherms at 15° and 85°C.

    fig. S36. Schematic of insulation cell used for solar flux–temperature response measurements.

    fig. S37. The increase of the sample temperature with time under a flux of 1000 W m−2 for MOF-801 and MOF-801/G.

    fig. S38. The increase of the sample temperature with time under a flux of 1000 W m−2 for MOF-303 and MOF-303/G.

    fig. S39. Diffuse reflectance spectra of zeolite 13X, MOF-801, MOF-801/G, MOF-303, and MOF-303/G recorded between 285 and 2500 nm.

    fig. S40. Absorption spectra of zeolite 13X, MOF-801, MOF-801/G, MOF-303, and MOF-303/G between 285 and 2500 nm.

    fig. S41. Comparison of water sorption kinetics for zeolite 13X, MOF-801, MOF-303, MOF-801/G, and MOF-303/G.

    fig. S42. The temperature response with time under a flux of 1000 W m−2 measured for circular pieces of PMMA (diameter, 20 mm) with a thickness of 1/4″ and 1/8″.

    fig. S43. The temperature response with time under a flux of 1000 W m−2 measured for circular pieces of PMMA (diameter, 20 mm) of the same thickness (1/4″) coated with a white (red) and clear coating (black).

    fig. S44. The temperature response with time under a flux of 1000 W m−2 measured for circular pieces of PMMA (diameter, 20 mm) of the same thickness (1/4″) coated with solar absorber coating (Pyromark paint).

    fig. S45. Absorption of PMMA (blue) compared to the spectral irradiance of the sun (red) and an incandescent lamp (orange) between 285 and 3000 nm.

    fig. S46. Comparison of absorption spectra for PMMA (light blue), PMMA coated with primer (light gray), and PMMA coated with white paint (orange).

    fig. S47. Water sorption unit.

    fig. S48. Schematic of the case, cover, and water sorption unit with dimensions.

    fig. S49. Locations of thermocouples and humidity sensors inside the case.

    fig. S50. Calibration curve for humidity sensor converting the voltage output readings into the corresponding RH.

    fig. S51. Calibration curve for the temperature sensor.

    fig. S52. Artificial solar irradiance for low flux condition.

    fig. S53. Artificial solar irradiance for high flux condition.

    fig. S54. Image of the artificial flux generator in two lamps configuration.

    fig. S55. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for empty sorbent container under low flux artificial solar irradiance.

    fig. S56. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.25 kg graphite under low flux artificial solar irradiance.

    fig. S57. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.5 kg of zeolite 13X under low flux artificial solar irradiance.

    fig. S58. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.5 kg of zeolite 13X under high flux artificial solar irradiance.

    fig. S59. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 1.65 kg of MOF-801/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance.

    fig. S60. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 1.65 kg of MOF-801/G under high flux artificial solar irradiance.

    fig. S61. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.825 kg of MOF-801/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance.

    fig. S62. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.825 kg of MOF-801/G under high flux artificial solar irradiance.

    fig. S63. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.412 kg of MOF-801/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance.

    fig. S64. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.412 kg of MOF-801/G under high flux artificial solar irradiance.

    fig. S65. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.600 kg of MOF-303/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance.

    fig. S66. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.600 kg of MOF-303/G under high flux artificial solar irradiance.

    fig. S67. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.600 kg of MOF-801/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance and controlled saturation conditions.

    fig. S68. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.600 kg of MOF-303/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance and controlled saturation conditions.

    fig. S69. Water sorption isotherms for MOF-801/G.

    fig. S70. Schematic of energy flow on the top surface of the water sorption unit.

    fig. S71. Variations of qsensible with the release and capture temperature for four values of packing porosities of 0.85, 0.75, 0.65, and 0.55.

    fig. S72. Variations of radiative heat loss with MOF-801/G temperature for different values of emissivity.

    fig. S73. Variations of the temperature of MOF-801/G and the cover.

    fig. S74. Comparison of qH (with and without heat losses) and the amount of MOF-801/G to the latent and sensible energy per kilogram of MOF-801/G.

    fig. S75. Variations of the size of the cooling surface with the amount of MOF-810/G for a temperature of 65°C for the released water, a condenser temperature of 20° and 40°C, and average heat condensation Nusselt numbers of 3.36 and 1.18.

    fig. S76. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 1.65 kg of MOF-801/G under desert conditions.

    fig. S77. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.825 kg of MOF-801/G under desert conditions.

    fig. S78. Schematic of the exterior insulation (soil) surrounding the case of the water harvester in desert climate.

    fig. S79. 1H-NMR spectrum of pure D2O before heating.

    fig. S80. 1H-NMR spectrum of pure D2O after heating.

    fig. S81. 1H-NMR spectrum of MOF-801 in D2O before heating.

    fig. S82. 1H-NMR spectrum of MOF-801 in D2O after heating.

    fig. S83. 1H-NMR spectra of MOF-801 in D2O: Overlay of before/after heating.

    fig. S84. 1H-NMR spectrum of water collected using 0.825 kg of MOF-801/G.

    fig. S85. 1H-NMR spectrum of MOF-303 in D2O before heating.

    fig. S86. 1H-NMR spectrum of MOF-303 in D2O after heating.

    fig. S87. 1H-NMR spectra of MOF-303 in D2O: Overlay of before/after heating.

    fig. S88. 1H-NMR spectrum of water collected using 0.600 kg of MOF-303/G.

    fig. S89. The calibration curve for zirconium standard solutions.

    fig. S90. The calibration curve for aluminum standard solutions.

    table S1. Crystal data and structure determination for MOF-303 with single crystal data set.

    table S2. Atomic positions for MOF-303 from the Pawley refinement model.

    table S3. The average hemispherical absorptivity and transmissivity of materials for artificial and solar radiation within the range of 285 to 2500 nm.

    table S4. Test conditions for the water harvesting in the laboratory.

    table S5. The performance parameters for water production under laboratory conditions.

    table S6. Total flux received by different sorbents for the laboratory experiment using low and high fluxes.

    movie S1. Initial stage of water condensation on the side walls of the case at 10,000% speed.

    movie S2. Formation of running droplets of water on the side walls of the case at 10,000% speed.

    movie S3. Coalescence of water droplets into puddles of liquid water at the condenser at 700% speed.

    movie S4. Collision of puddles of liquid water at the bottom of the case at 1000% speed.

    References (2432)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • section S1. Materials and analytical techniques for MOF synthesis and analysis
    • section S2. MOF-801 synthesis and characterization
    • section S3. MOF-801/G preparation and characterization
    • section S4. MOF-303 synthesis and characterization
    • section S5. MOF-303/G preparation and characterization
    • section S6. Comparison of sorbents
    • section S7. Water harvester
    • section S8. Data acquisition and sensors
    • section S9. WHC under laboratory conditions
    • section S10. Harvesting experiments at Scottsdale, AZ, under desert conditions
    • section S11. Chemical analysis of collected water samples and MOF chemicalstability
    • section S12. Movies of the water production experiment
    • fig. S1. PXRD pattern of activated MOF-801.
    • fig. S2. SEM image of activated MOF-801.
    • fig. S3. SEM and EDS images of MOF-801.
    • fig. S4. N2 isotherm of activated MOF-801 recorded at 77 K.
    • fig. S5. Water sorption isotherms of pre–scaled-up MOF-801 sample (black, this work), MOF-801-P (red), and MOF-801-SC (blue) (7).
    • fig. S6. Water sorption isotherms of pre–scaled-up MOF-801 recorded at different temperatures.
    • fig. S7. Characteristic curves for activated pre–scaled-up MOF-801 determined using Eqs. 2 and 3 based on the sorption isotherms measured at different temperatures.
    • fig. S8. Isosteric heat of adsorption (black) and water sorption isotherm at 25°C (red) for activated MOF-801.
    • fig. S9. Experimental water sorption isotherm for activated scaled-up MOF-801 recorded at 25°C and calculated water sorption isotherms at 15 and 85°C.
    • fig. S10. PXRD pattern of the graphite sample.
    • fig. S11. PXRD pattern of activated sample of MOF-801/G.
    • fig. S12. SEM and EDS images of MOF-801/G.
    • fig. S13. N2 isotherm of the activated MOF-801/G recorded at 77 K.
    • fig. S14. Experimental water sorption isotherm for MOF-801/G at 25°C and calculated water sorption isotherms at 15° and 85°C.
    • fig. S15. Comparison of water sorption isotherms for scaled-up MOF-801 and MOF-801/G at 25°C.
    • fig. S16. Asymmetric unit in the single-crystal structure of MOF-303 (atoms are shown isotropically).
    • fig. S17. PXRD pattern of activated MOF-303.
    • fig. S18. SEM image of activated MOF-303.
    • fig. S19. SEM and EDS images of MOF-303.
    • fig. S20. N2 isotherm of activated scaled-up MOF-303 at 77 K.
    • fig. S21. Water sorption isotherm of pre–scaled-up activated MOF-303 recorded at 25°C.
    • fig. S22. Cycling experiment of MOF-303.
    • fig. S23. Water sorption isotherms of activated scaled-up MOF-303 at different temperatures.
    • fig. S24. One hundred fifty cycles of RH swing cycling of scaled-up activated MOF-303 at 25°C in a TGA.
    • fig. S25. Characteristic curves determined using Eqs. 2 and 3 based on sorption isotherms for MOF-303 measured at different temperatures.
    • fig. S26. Isosteric heat of adsorption (black) versus water sorption isotherm at 25°C (red) for activated MOF-303.
    • fig. S27. Experimental water sorption isotherm for activated scaled-up MOF-303 at 25°C and calculated water isotherms at 15° and 85°C.
    • fig. S28. PXRD pattern of activated sample of MOF-303/G.
    • fig. S29. SEM and EDS images of MOF-303/G.
    • fig. S30. N2 isotherm of activated MOF-303/G at 77 K.
    • fig. S31. Experimental water sorption isotherm for MOF-303/G at 25°C and calculated water isotherms at 15° and 85°C.
    • fig. S32. Comparison of water sorption isotherms of scaled-up MOF-303 and MOF-303/G at 25°C.
    • fig. S33. PXRD pattern of zeolite 13X.
    • fig. S34. N2 isotherm of zeolite 13X recorded at 77 K.
    • fig. S35. Experimental water sorption isotherm for zeolite 13X at 25°C and calculated water isotherms at 15° and 85°C.
    • fig. S36. Schematic of insulation cell used for solar flux–temperature response measurements.
    • fig. S37. The increase of the sample temperature with time under a flux of 1000 W m−2 for MOF-801 and MOF-801/G.
    • fig. S38. The increase of the sample temperature with time under a flux of 1000 W m−2 for MOF-303 and MOF-303/G.
    • fig. S39. Diffuse reflectance spectra of zeolite 13X, MOF-801, MOF-801/G, MOF-303, and MOF-303/G recorded between 285 and 2500 nm.
    • fig. S40. Absorption spectra of zeolite 13X, MOF-801, MOF-801/G, MOF-303, and MOF-303/G between 285 and 2500 nm.
    • fig. S41. Comparison of water sorption kinetics for zeolite 13X, MOF-801, MOF-303, MOF-801/G, and MOF-303/G.
    • fig. S42. The temperature response with time under a flux of 1000 W m−2 measured for circular pieces of PMMA (diameter, 20 mm) with a thickness of 1/4″ and 1/8″.
    • fig. S43. The temperature response with time under a flux of 1000 W m−2 measured for circular pieces of PMMA (diameter, 20 mm) of the same thickness (1/4″) coated with a white (red) and clear coating (black).
    • fig. S44. The temperature response with time under a flux of 1000 W m−2 measured for circular pieces of PMMA (diameter, 20 mm) of the same thickness (1/4″) coated with solar absorber coating (Pyromark paint).
    • fig. S45. Absorption of PMMA (blue) compared to the spectral irradiance of the sun (red) and an incandescent lamp (orange) between 285 and 3000 nm.
    • fig. S46. Comparison of absorption spectra for PMMA (light blue), PMMA coated with primer (light gray), and PMMA coated with white paint (orange).
    • fig. S47. Water sorption unit.
    • fig. S48. Schematic of the case, cover, and water sorption unit with dimensions.
    • fig. S49. Locations of thermocouples and humidity sensors inside the case.
    • fig. S50. Calibration curve for humidity sensor converting the voltage output readings into the corresponding RH.
    • fig. S51. Calibration curve for the temperature sensor.
    • fig. S52. Artificial solar irradiance for low flux condition.
    • fig. S53. Artificial solar irradiance for high flux condition.
    • fig. S54. Image of the artificial flux generator in two lamps configuration.
    • fig. S55. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for empty sorbent container under low flux artificial solar irradiance.
    • fig. S56. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.25 kg graphite under low flux artificial solar irradiance.
    • fig. S57. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.5 kg of zeolite 13X under low flux artificial solar irradiance.
    • fig. S58. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.5 kg of zeolite 13X under high flux artificial solar irradiance.
    • fig. S59. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 1.65 kg of MOF-801/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance.
    • fig. S60. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 1.65 kg of MOF-801/G under high flux artificial solar irradiance.
    • fig. S61. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.825 kg of MOF-801/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance.
    • fig. S62. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.825 kg of MOF-801/G under high flux artificial solar irradiance.
    • fig. S63. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.412 kg of MOF-801/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance.
    • fig. S64. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.412 kg of MOF-801/G under high flux artificial solar irradiance.
    • fig. S65. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.600 kg of MOF-303/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance.
    • fig. S66. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.600 kg of MOF-303/G under high flux artificial solar irradiance.
    • fig. S67. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.600 kg of MOF-801/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance and controlled saturation conditions.
    • fig. S68. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.600 kg of MOF-303/G under low flux artificial solar irradiance and controlled saturation conditions.
    • fig. S69. Water sorption isotherms for MOF-801/G.
    • fig. S70. Schematic of energy flow on the top surface of the water sorption unit.
    • fig. S71. Variations of qsensible with the release and capture temperature for four values of packing porosities of 0.85, 0.75, 0.65, and 0.55.
    • fig. S72. Variations of radiative heat loss with MOF-801/G temperature for different values of emissivity.
    • fig. S73. Variations of the temperature of MOF-801/G and the cover.
    • fig. S74. Comparison of qH (with and without heat losses) and the amount of MOF-801/G to the latent and sensible energy per kilogram of MOF-801/G.
    • fig. S75. Variations of the size of the cooling surface with the amount of MOF-810/G for a temperature of 65°C for the released water, a condenser temperature
    of 20° and 40°C, and average heat condensation Nusselt numbers of 3.36 and 1.18.
  • fig. S76. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 1.65 kg of MOF-801/G under desert conditions.
  • fig. S77. Relative humidity and temperature profiles for 0.825 kg of MOF-801/G under desert conditions.
  • fig. S78. Schematic of the exterior insulation (soil) surrounding the case of the water harvester in desert climate.
  • fig. S79. 1H-NMR spectrum of pure D2O before heating.
  • fig. S80. 1H-NMR spectrum of pure D2O after heating.
  • fig. S81. 1H-NMR spectrum of MOF-801 in D2O before heating.
  • fig. S82. 1H-NMR spectrum of MOF-801 in D2O after heating.
  • fig. S83. 1H-NMR spectra of MOF-801 in D2O: Overlay of before/after heating.
  • fig. S84. 1H-NMR spectrum of water collected using 0.825 kg of MOF-801/G.
  • fig. S85. 1H-NMR spectrum of MOF-303 in D2O before heating.
  • fig. S86. 1H-NMR spectrum of MOF-303 in D2O after heating.
  • fig. S87. 1H-NMR spectra of MOF-303 in D2O: Overlay of before/after heating.
  • fig. S88. 1H-NMR spectrum of water collected using 0.600 kg of MOF-303/G.
  • fig. S89. The calibration curve for zirconium standard solutions.
  • fig. S90. The calibration curve for aluminum standard solutions.
  • table S1. Crystal data and structure determination for MOF-303 with single crystal data set.
  • table S2. Atomic positions for MOF-303 from the Pawley refinement model.
  • table S3. The average hemispherical absorptivity and transmissivity of materials for artificial and solar radiation within the range of 285 to 2500 nm.
  • table S4. Test conditions for the water harvesting in the laboratory.
  • table S5. The performance parameters for water production under laboratory conditions.
  • table S6. Total flux received by different sorbents for the laboratory experiment using low and high fluxes.
  • Legends for movies S1 to S4
  • References (24–32)
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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • movie S1 (.mp4 format). Initial stage of water condensation on the side walls of the case at 10,000% speed.
    • movie S2 (.mp4 format). Formation of running droplets of water on the side walls of the case at 10,000% speed.
    • movie S3 (.mp4 format). Coalescence of water droplets into puddles of liquid water at the condenser at 700% speed.
    • movie S4 (.mp4 format). Collision of puddles of liquid water at the bottom of the case at 1000% speed.

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