Research ArticleSOCIAL SCIENCES

Seeing slavery in seafood supply chains

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Science Advances  25 Jul 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 7, e1701833
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1701833
  • Fig. 1 LSS components and flow.
  • Fig. 2 Tiered approach for screening a large number of products.
  • Fig. 3 Seafood supply chain diagram. The major nodes in the supply chain are shown in the top diagram.

    The bottom diagram shows updates as the identity of facilities was confirmed.

  • Fig. 4 Field-tested principles for minimum conditions to protect workers from forced labor.
  • Table 1 At-sea LSS risk assessment parameterization to assess transparency and legal compliance of vessels.
    Risk factor 1: Vessel ownership and home portRisk factor 2: Vessel registration and flagRisk factor 3: Sea-going crew
    Where there is a joint venture fishing operation, who
    has the responsibility for labor management of
    the at-sea crew?
    What is the registration status of the CV?What identity documents are carried by the crew at
    sea on the catching vessels?
    What is the ownership of the CV [catching vessel(s)]?What is the registration status of reefer
    vessels that are greater than 100 GRT?
    For at-sea crew transfers, what documentation is
    maintained on the vessels?
    What is the ownership of the reefer vessel(s)?What is the registration status of reefer
    vessels that are less than 100 GRT?
    What are the procedures that are routinely used to pay
    the crew for their sea duty?
    What is the ownership of the supply vessel(s) for the
    CV?
    What is the history of flags for the CV?Are the tasks/duties of the crew individuals at sea
    documented, and to what standards?
    What is the Home Port (incl. fishing/private dock) for
    the CV?
    What is the history of flags for the reefer(s)?How are the sea-going crew recruited?
    What is the Home Port (incl. fishing/private dock) for
    the reefer(s)?
    What is the history of flags for the supply
    vessel(s)?
    To what extent are the labor practices associated with
    the at-sea crew documentation above confirmed by a
    process of certification?
    What is the home port (incl. fishing/private dock) for
    the supply vessel(s)?
    To what extent are the labor practices associated
    with the vessel ownership and home port identity
    above confirmed by a process of verification?
    Risk factor 4: Vessel resupply, transshippingRisk factor 5: Governance frameworkRisk factor 6: Monitoring, control, and surveillance
    framework
    What is the size of the catching vessel?What is the level of compliance with the
    international labor standards for fishing
    operations?
    What is the history of the catching vessel in relation to
    regional, national, and industry labor or fishing
    standards?
    What is the frequency of at-sea transfer of crew to
    the catching vessel?
    What is the level of compliance with the Thai
    national labor standards for fishing
    operations?
    What is the history of the reefer or supply vessel in
    relation to regional, national, and industry labor or
    fishing standards?
    What is the destination of the vessel-to-vessel crew
    transfers?
    What is the level of compliance with
    minimum voluntary (for example, codes of
    practice) labor standards for fishing
    operations?
    In what ocean area are the fish caught?
    What is the size of the reefer or supply vessel
    involved in crew transfers?
    To what extent are the labor practices
    compliant with the standards described
    above confirmed by a process of verification
    or certification?
    To what extent are the oversight of labor practices and
    source areas described above confirmed by a process
    of verification?
    To what extent are the labor practices associated
    with the at-sea transshipping of crew described
    above confirmed by a process of verification?

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/7/e1701833/DC1

    Supplementary Methods

    Table S1. Summary of country-level labor risks in farmed shrimp.

    Table S2. Findings from semistructured interviews with Thai seafood workers (n = 197).

    Table S3. Disclosure template for seafood suppliers to prepare a human rights statement.

    Fig. S1. Pacific yellowfin tuna supply chains for six Asia-Pacific nations supplying the U.S. market.

    Fig. S2. Supply chains for shrimp from five major exporting countries and for fishmeal.

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Supplementary Methods
    • Table S1. Summary of country-level labor risks in farmed shrimp.
    • Table S2. Findings from semistructured interviews with Thai seafood workers (n = 197).
    • Table S3. Disclosure template for seafood suppliers to prepare a human rights statement.
    • Fig. S1. Pacific yellowfin tuna supply chains for six Asia-Pacific nations supplying the U.S. market.
    • Fig. S2. Supply chains for shrimp from five major exporting countries and for fishmeal.

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