Research ArticleGEOLOGY

Evidence of an early projectile point technology in North America at the Gault Site, Texas, USA

See allHide authors and affiliations

Science Advances  11 Jul 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 7, eaar5954
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aar5954
  • Fig. 1 Location of the Gault Site, Texas, USA.
  • Fig. 2 Stratigraphic profile of the Area 15 excavation block showing the diagnostic cultural materials and components alongside the stratigraphic sequence.

    Diagnostic projectile points listed on the left were all found within the associated deposits (SMH, St. Mary’s Hall). Stratigraphic unit numbers are shown on the right, and the cultural horizons are highlighted in gray.

  • Fig. 3 Gault Assemblage artifacts

    (A to D, F, and L) Bifaces. (E) Blade core. (G) Quartz projectile point. (H and I) Projectile points. (K) Projectile point tip. (M, V, and W) Blade. (N) Unifacial tool. (O and T) Gravers. (P) Discoidal biface. (Q) End scraper. (R to U) Modified flake tools. (X and Y) Lanceolate projectile points. Descriptions are given in the Supplementary Materials.

  • Fig. 4 OSL ages in association with the stratigraphic units and the projectile points recovered from the Gault Assemblage (not to scale).

    Stratigraphic unit numbers are shown on the left, and the cultural horizons are highlighted in gray. Clovis ages have been reported elsewhere (see text).

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/7/eaar5954/DC1

    Table S1. Sample OSL ages and dose rate data.

    Table S2. Radon loss effects on each Gault OSL sample.

    Table S3. Summary of the Gault Assemblage.

    Table S4. Summary counts of the Gault biface assemblage.

    Fig. S1. A representative decay curve (upper), growth curve (middle), and plot showing sensitivity changes through the SAR cycle (lower) for Gault 11-18.

    Fig. S2. Equivalent dose (De) distributions for all samples displayed in a histogram (left) and radial plot (right).

    Fig. S3. Location of the Area 15 excavation block and the excavation grid and profile.

    Fig. S4. Relationship between the stratigraphy and cultural components in Area 15.

    Fig. S5. Results of the geoarcheological analysis of the sediments in Area 15.

    Fig. S6. Andice projectile point (left) with representative diagnostic notching flakes (right).

    Fig. S7. Backplots of northing (blue) and easting (red) profiles showing the elevation of diagnostic Andice notching flakes and the cultural components discussed in the text.

    Fig. S8. Limestone bedrock of Area 15, with three sets of flutes scoured into the limestone (discussed in the text).

    Fig. S9. Pollen data from Boriack Bog and the NGRIP and GRIP ice core record as compared to stratigraphic units at Area 15.

    Fig. S10. Gault Assemblage stone tool types and frequency (see table S2).

    Fig. S11. Gault Assemblage projectile points.

    Fig. S12. Principal components analysis of the Gault Assemblage stemmed projectile points and the Gower and Uvalde types.

    Section S1. Area 15 stratigraphy

    Section S2. Context of early dates in North America

    Section S3. Gault Assemblage in Area 15

    References (4385)

  • Supplementary Materials

    This PDF file includes:

    • Table S1. Sample OSL ages and dose rate data.
    • Table S2. Radon loss effects on each Gault OSL sample.
    • Table S3. Summary of the Gault Assemblage.
    • Table S4. Summary counts of the Gault biface assemblage.
    • Fig. S1. A representative decay curve (upper), growth curve (middle), and plot showing sensitivity changes through the SAR cycle (lower) for Gault 11-18.
    • Fig. S2. Equivalent dose (De) distributions for all samples displayed in a histogram (left) and radial plot (right).
    • Fig. S3. Location of the Area 15 excavation block and the excavation grid and profile.
    • Fig. S4. Relationship between the stratigraphy and cultural components in Area 15.
    • Fig. S5. Results of the geoarcheological analysis of the sediments in Area 15.
    • Fig. S6. Andice projectile point (left) with representative diagnostic notching flakes (right).
    • Fig. S7. Backplots of northing (blue) and easting (red) profiles showing the elevation of diagnostic Andice notching flakes and the cultural components discussed in the text.
    • Fig. S8. Limestone bedrock of Area 15, with three sets of flutes scoured into the limestone (discussed in the text).
    • Fig. S9. Pollen data from Boriack Bog and the NGRIP and GRIP ice core record as compared to stratigraphic units at Area 15.
    • Fig. S10. Gault Assemblage stone tool types and frequency (see table S2).
    • Fig. S11. Gault Assemblage projectile points.
    • Fig. S12. Principal components analysis of the Gault Assemblage stemmed projectile points and the Gower and Uvalde types.
    • Section S1. Area 15 stratigraphy
    • Section S2. Context of early dates in North America
    • Section S3. Gault Assemblage in Area 15
    • References (4385)

    Download PDF

    Files in this Data Supplement:

Navigate This Article