Research ArticleMATERIALS SCIENCE

Origami and 4D printing of elastomer-derived ceramic structures

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Science Advances  17 Aug 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 8, eaat0641
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aat0641
  • Fig. 1. Origami and 4D printing of EDCs via DIW–morphing–heat treatment method.

    (A) 3D-printed elastomeric lattices for origami. (B) Optical image of DIW of inks. (C) Origami of ceramic structures derived from 3D-printed elastomers. (D and E) Two 4D printing methods, including method 1 (D) and method 2 (E), together with heat treatment, convert 3D-printed elastomer into 4D-printed ceramics. Examples: (F) Flat (left) and curved (right) cellphone back plate. (G) Top view of 3D-printed flat cellphone back plate. (H) Curved ceramic honeycomb. The inset indicates the curvature of the honeycomb. Scale bars, 1 cm.

  • Fig. 2 Additive manufacturing of EDCs.

    (A) 3D-printed large-scale elastomeric honeycomb. (B and C) 3D-printed microlattices (B) and honeycombs (C) of PDMS NCs and first EDCs and second EDCs (left to right). (D to G) Hierarchical structures of second EDCs illustrated by a digital photo (D), SEM image of the microlattice (E), TEM image of NPs (F), and suprananopores (G). (H and I) TEM images and SAED patterns (inset) of first EDCs (H) and second EDCs (I) illustrating amorphous-crystalline dual-phase SiOC matrix NCs with suprananopores. The above first EDCs were obtained by heat treatment of ink system 1 at 1000°C under argon flow, and second EDCs were obtained by heat treatment of first EDCs at 1000°C in air. (J and L) TEM image of first EDCs obtained by heat treatment of ink system 1 at 1300°C (J) and ink system 2 at 1300°C (L), illustrating rare suprananopores. (K and M) TEM image and SAED patterns (inset) of first EDCs obtained by heat treatment of ink system 1 at 1300°C (K) and ink system 2 at 1300°C (M), illustrating amorphous-crystalline dual-phase SiOC matrix NCs.

  • Fig. 3 Complex origami of EDCs with mixed Gaussian curvature (K).

    (A) Flexibility and stretchability of printed elastomer presented by bending, twisting, and stretching (top to bottom). (B) Optical images of printed elastomer from 0 to 200% strain and then to ~10% strain. (C) Representative metal wire–assisted ceramic origami mimicking a butterfly, the Sydney Opera House, a rose, and a dress (top to bottom). The insets indicate the location of constrains. (D and E) Positive K (spherical caps) and zero K (cylinders) in ceramic origami. (F) Positive K (the outer region of the torus) and negative K (the inner region of the torus) in ceramic origami. (G) Zero K (cones and cylinders) in ceramic origami. The above first EDCs were obtained by heat treatment of ink system 1 at 1000°C in argon (A) or under vacuum (C), and second EDCs were obtained by heat treatment of first EDCs at 1000°C in air. Scale bars, 1 cm.

  • Fig. 4 4D printing of EDCs via method 1.

    (A) Representative 4D-printed EDCs with the Miura-ori design. (B) 4D printing process of ceramic Miura-ori with a maximum compressive strain of 30% in the x axis and 15% in the y axis. The above first EDCs were obtained by heat treatment of ink system 1 at 1000°C under vacuum, and second EDCs were obtained by heat treatment of first EDCs at 1000°C in air. (C) Phase diagram (1/4) of 4D printing of Miura-ori as an example to illustrate that a series of complex-shaped ceramics with continuously variable geometries can be derived from a simple design. The series of ceramic Miura-ori were obtained by heat treatment of ink system 2 at 1300°C in argon. Scale bars, 1 cm.

  • Fig. 5 4D printing of EDCs via method 2.

    (A to C) 4D printing of ceramics with the design of bending configuration (A), helical ribbon (B), and saddle surface (C), and the definition of important geometric parameters [(A) d = 1.2 mm; (B) d = 0.7 mm, α = 45°; (C) d = 2.5 mm]. (D) Representative 4D-printed EDCs by printing programmed patterns on prestretched precursors. Ceramic structures were obtained after heat treatment at 1300°C in argon. Scale bars, 1 cm.

  • Fig. 6 Mechanical robustness of printed EDCs.

    (A) Compressive strength-density Ashby chart. SiOC matrix NC architectures with high specific compressive strength in this work (red stars) were compared with other ceramic structures, as reported in the reference, and commercially available SiC foam and AlSiO foam. For our SiOC matrix NC architectures, the tests were repeated at least three times. Error bars denoted the SDs of the compressive strength values and densities. Please refer to tables S1 and S2 for detailed information. (B) Strength-scalability synergy is achieved. Architectured EDCs with simultaneous high strength and large scale in this work (red stars) are separated from other reported ceramic structures. The scalability of each additive manufacturing technique is exhibited by the maximum dimension of resultant ceramic structures, as reported in the reference. The data representing each reference work were selected from all the reported compression data and exhibited the maximum specific compressive strength for a series of samples with the same maximum dimension. For our SiOC matrix NC architectures, the data point represents the average value obtained from 15 samples. Please refer to table S2 for detailed information.

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/8/eaat0641/DC1

    Fig. S1. TEM image of ZrO2 NPs.

    Fig. S2. The effect of ZrO2 NPs on the ceramization of precursors printed by two ink systems.

    Fig. S3. The samples of elastomer, first EDCs, second EDCs, and oxidation results of the elastomer for two ink systems.

    Fig. S4. Porosity of EDCs.

    Fig. S5. Schematic of Miura-ori with the definition of important geometric parameters (l1 = l2 = 9 mm, c = 1.8 mm, α = 75°) and relative locations of the patterned joints on the substrate.

    Fig. S6. Phase diagram (¼) of 4D printing of the Miura-ori with FEA simulation and elastomeric experimental results.

    Fig. S7. Comparison of ink system 1 and ink system 2 with some different advantages.

    Table S1. Compression test samples with various conditions.

    Table S2. Compression test samples in Fig. 4 (ink system 1, first EDCs from heat treatment in argon at 1300°C).

    Movie S1. Tension testing video of precursors (played at 10× speed) printed by ink system 1.

    Movie S2. Tension testing video of precursors (played at 10× speed) printed by ink system 2.

    Movie S3. 4D printing of ceramic Miura-ori.

    Movie S4. FEA simulation showing shape morphing of the bending configuration.

    Movie S5. FEA simulation showing shape morphing of the helical ribbon.

    Movie S6. FEA simulation showing shape morphing of the saddle surface.

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Fig. S1. TEM image of ZrO2 NPs.
    • Fig. S2. The effect of ZrO2 NPs on the ceramization of precursors printed by two ink systems.
    • Fig. S3. The samples of elastomer, first EDCs, second EDCs, and oxidation results of the elastomer for two ink systems.
    • Fig. S4. Porosity of EDCs.
    • Fig. S5. Schematic of Miura-ori with the definition of important geometric parameters (l1 = l2 = 9 mm, c = 1.8 mm, α = 75°) and relative locations of the patterned joints on the substrate.
    • Fig. S6. Phase diagram (¼) of 4D printing of the Miura-ori with FEA simulation and elastomeric experimental results.
    • Fig. S7. Comparison of ink system 1 and ink system 2 with some different advantages.
    • Table S1. Compression test samples with various conditions.
    • Table S2. Compression test samples in Fig. 4 (ink system 1, first EDCs from heat treatment in argon at 1300°C).
    • Legends for movies S1 to S6.

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Movie S1 (.mp4 format). Tension testing video of precursors (played at 10× speed) printed by ink system 1.
    • Movie S2 (.mp4 format). Tension testing video of precursors (played at 10× speed) printed by ink system 2.
    • Movie S3 (.mp4 format). 4D printing of ceramic Miura-ori.
    • Movie S4 (.mp4 format). FEA simulation showing shape morphing of the bending configuration.
    • Movie S5 (.mp4 format). FEA simulation showing shape morphing of the helical ribbon.
    • Movie S6 (.mp4 format). FEA simulation showing shape morphing of the saddle surface.

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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