Research ArticlePALEONTOLOGY

A new fossil assemblage shows that large angiosperm trees grew in North America by the Turonian (Late Cretaceous)

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Science Advances  26 Sep 2018:
Vol. 4, no. 9, eaar8568
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aar8568
  • Fig. 1 Cretaceous woods.

    Map of Turonian localities in western North America with angiosperm woods >10 cm in diameter and stacked area curve showing the contribution of this discovery (indicated by star) to the global record of Cretaceous angiosperm woods. Ages are midpoint estimates. The gray area indicates the maximum observed angiosperm diameter through the Cretaceous. Dashed box indicates Turonian occurrences shown in the map above. Inset shows the new angiosperm log in the field (Photo Credit: M.D. D’Emic, Adelphi University). During much of the Late Cretaceous, the Western Interior Seaway divided North America into Appalachia in the east and Laramidia in the west. Map modified from Blakey (38).

  • Fig. 2 P. cf. alabamense UF 19462-69143.

    (A) Photograph of the log in the field. (B) Transverse section (XS) showing diffuse porous wood with vessels in short radial multiples of 2 to 11, growth rings absent, axial parenchyma rare, radial bands of fibers, and rays roughly the same width. (C) Tangential longitudinal section (TLS) showing crowded, hexagonal pits on the vessel wall. (D) TLS showing closely spaced lens-shaped 2- to 4-seriate rays among elongate fibers. (E) Radial longitudinal section showing rows of procumbent and upright ray parenchyma cells. (F) XS showing thin-walled ray cells (at left) and medium thick-walled fibers (at right). Scale bars, 500 μm (B), 100 μm (C), 250 μm (D), 200 μm (E), and 50 μm (F). (Photo Credits: A: M.D. D’Emic, Adelphi University; B to F: N.A. Jud, University of Florida)

  • Fig. 3 Plant compression fossils from the Ferron Sandstone of Utah.

    (A) Leafy shoot of E. curvifolia (Dunker) Nathorst; UF 19523-70170. B) Indeterminate angiosperm leaf; UF 19523-70171. (C) Close-up of (A). (D) Isolated fern pinnule; UF 19523-70170. Scale bars, 5 mm (A to C) and 3 mm (D). (Photo Credits: N.A. Jud, University of Florida)

  • Fig. 4 Vertebrate fossils from the Ferron Sandstone of Utah.

    (A) Tooth of C. crassidens BMRP 2017.8.1. (B) Crocodyliform teeth 2017.8.5 (left), 2017.8.4 (center), BMRP 2017.8.3 (right). (C) Dorsal turtle scute BRMP 2017.8.6. (D) Ornithopod sacrum BMRP 2017.8.2. (Photo Credits: S.A. Williams, Burpee Museum of Natural History)

Supplementary Materials

  • Supplementary material for this article is available at http://advances.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/4/9/eaar8568/DC1

    Table S1. Comparison of the Cretaceous Paraphyllanthoxylon species and the anatomically similar genus Aplectotremas.

    Data file S1. Cretaceous angiosperm wood fossils used to create Fig. 1 (Excel file).

    References (3951)

  • Supplementary Materials

    The PDF file includes:

    • Table S1. Comparison of the Cretaceous Paraphyllanthoxylon species and the anatomically similar genus Aplectotremas.
    • Legend for data file S1
    • References (3951)

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    Other Supplementary Material for this manuscript includes the following:

    • Data file S1. Cretaceous angiosperm wood fossils used to create Fig. 1 (Excel file).

    Files in this Data Supplement:

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