Anomalous interfacial stress generation during sodium intercalation/extraction in MoS2 thin-film anodes

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Science Advances  02 Jan 2019:
Vol. 5, no. 1, eaav2820
DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aav2820


Although the generation of mechanical stress in the anode material is suggested as a possible reason for electrode degradation and fading of storage capacity in batteries, only limited knowledge of the electrode stress and its evolution is available at present. Here, we show real-time monitoring of the interfacial stress of a few-layer MoS2 system under the sodiation/desodiation process using microcantilever electrodes. During the first sodiation with a voltage plateau of 1.0 to 0.85 V, the MoS2 exhibits a compressive stress (2.1 Nm−1), which is substantially smaller than that measured (9.8 Nm−1) during subsequent plateaus at 0.85 to 0.4 V due to the differential volume expansion of the MoS2 film. The conversion reaction to Mo below 0.1 V generates an anomalous compressive stress of 43 Nm−1 with detrimental effects. These results also suggest the existence of a separate discharge stage between 0.6 and 0.1 V, where the generated stress is only approximately one-third of that observed below 0.1 V. This approach can be adapted to help resolve the localized stress in a wide range of electrode materials, to gain additional insights into mechanical effects of charge storage, and for long-lifetime battery design.

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